issues2000    

Background on Homeland Security


Defense Spending
Defense Spending Proposals

‘Hollow Military’
The ‘hollow military’ refers to a reduced size of the US armed forces resulting in lack of readiness. The term was popularized in the post-Vietnam 1970s, but has come back into use for the post-Cold War. Current US military policy is to achieve sufficient ‘readiness’ to fight two ‘nearly-simultaneous’ wars.

‘Star Wars’ Strategic Defense Initiative

ABM Treaty
The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 is an agreement that neither the USA nor the USSR would build any nation-wide missile defense, on the theory that ‘Mutually Assured Destruction’ was the best means to avoid nuclear war. Russia and the 3 other post-Soviet nuclear states have agreed to abide by the USSR’s limitations within the ABM Treaty.

In general, calling for abrogating the ABM Treaty implies support for NMD, while supporting nuclear test bans of any kind implies opposition to NMD.


‘Loose Nukes’ and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty intends to limit nuclear proliferation. As of April 1999, it has been signed by 152 countries and ratified by 32, but requires 44 ratifications to enter into force of law. Ratification implies that a nation will not advance its nuclear technology beyond its present status. India & Pakistan, who both exploded nuclear devices in 1998, have promised to sign the Treaty now that their testing is complete.

2012 update: The figures below represent consistent totals to allow comparisons between countries. Since those figures were gathered, nuclear reductions have occured, reducing the total number of warheads worldwide to 20,500, of which 8,500 belong to the United States.

CountryNuclear StatusSigned
China400 warheads; at most 50 on ICBMs; 45 nuclear tests9/24/96; unratified.
France450 warheads; 210 nuclear tests9/24/96; ratified 4/6/98
IndiaConducted tests, 1998Unsigned
IranSeeking nuclear capability9/24/96
IraqSought nuclear capability under Saddam HusseinUnsigned
Israel Unacknowledged nuclear capability9/25/96; unratified.
North KoreaConducted tests, 2006Unsigned
PakistanConducted tests, 1998Unsigned
Russia23,000 warheads; 715 nuclear tests; 3,630 warheads on ICBMs,
including missiles in Belarus, Ukraine, & Kazakhstan
9/24/96; unratified.
South AfricaDeveloped weapons but relinquished them in 19939/24/96; unratified.
United Kingdom260 warheads; 45 nuclear tests.9/24/96; ratified 4/6/98
United States1,030 nuclear tests and 12,000 warheads,
including 2,000 ICBMs & 3,450 SLBMs.
9/24/96; rejected 10/13/99.

Click for Amazon books on Homeland Security
  • Living Under The Patriot Act
  • Righting Trans-Atlantic Defense Spending
  • Terrorism and Homeland Security
  • The Nuclear Express
  • Other candidates on Homeland Security: Background on other issues:
    Democratic Incumbents:
    Pres.Barack Obama
    V.P.Joe Biden

    Democratic 2016 Prospects:
    Secy.Hillary Clinton
    Gov.Andrew Cuomo(NY)
    Mayor Rahm Emanuel(IL)
    Gov.Martin O`Malley(MD)
    Gov.Deval Patrick(MA)

    Republican 2016 Prospects:
    Gov.Jeb Bush(FL)
    Amb.John Bolton(MD)
    Dr.Ben Carson(MD)
    Gov.Chris Cristie(NJ)
    Sen.Ted Cruz(TX)
    Rep.Newt Gingrich(GA)
    Rep.Peter King(NY)
    Gov.Sarah Palin(AK)
    Sen.Rand Paul(KY)
    Gov.Rick Perry(TX)
    Sen.Rob Portman(OH)
    Sen.Marco Rubio(FL)
    Rep.Paul Ryan(WI)

    Third Party 2016 Prospects:
    Mayor Mike Bloomberg(I-NYC)
    Gov.Gary Johnson(L-NM)
    Donald Trump(I-NYC)
    Abortion
    Budget/Economy
    Civil Rights
    Corporations
    Crime
    Drugs
    Education
    Energy/Oil
    Environment
    Families
    Foreign Policy
    Free Trade
    Govt. Reform
    Gun Control
    Health Care
    Homeland_Security
    Immigration
    Jobs
    Principles
    Social Security
    Tax Reform
    Technology
    War & Peace
    Welfare