Hillary Clinton on Foreign Policy

Secretary of State; previously Democratic Senator (NY)


Clinton Foundation raised $30M to help Haiti

We at the Clinton Foundation spend 90% of all the money that is donated on behalf of programs of people around the world and in our own country. I'm very proud of that. We have the highest rating from the watchdogs that follow foundations. I'd be happy to compare what we do with the Trump Foundation, which took money from other people and bought a six-foot portrait of Trump. I mean, who does that? It just was astonishing. But when it comes to Haiti, Haiti is the poorest country in our hemisphere. The earthquake and the hurricanes, it has devastated Haiti. Bill and I have been involved in trying to help Haiti for many years. The Clinton Foundation raised $30 million to help Haiti after the catastrophic earthquake and all of the terrible problems the people there had. We have done things to help small businesses, agriculture, and so much else. And we're going to keep working to help Haiti because it's an important part of the American experience.
Source: Third 2016 Presidential Debate moderated by Fox News , Oct 19, 2016

For long-term US policy against nuclear proliferation

Trump: I agree with her on one thing. The single greatest problem the world has is nuclear weapons.

Clinton: Donald has said he didn't care if other nations got nuclear weapons, Japan, South Korea, even Saudi Arabia. It has been the policy of the US to do everything we could to reduce the proliferation of nuclear weapons. His cavalier attitude about nuclear weapons is deeply troubling. That is the number-one threat we face. It becomes particularly threatening if terrorists ever get their hands on any nuclear material. A man who can be provoked by a tweet should not have his fingers anywhere near the nuclear codes.

Source: First 2016 Presidential Debate at Hofstra University , Sep 26, 2016

Trump is a unilateralist vs. Hillary's multilateralist hawk

Source: Donald Trump vs. Hillary Clinton On The Issues, by J. Gordon , Feb 29, 2016

Obama trusted my judgment; I'll be ready on Day One

Having run a hard race against Senator Obama, he turned to me to be secretary of State. And when it comes to the biggest counterterrorism issues that we faced in this administration, namely whether or not to go after bin Laden, I was at that table, I was exercising my judgment to advise the president on what to do, on Iran, on Russia on China, on a whole raft of issues. You've got to be ready on day one.
Source: MSNBC Democratic primary debate in New Hampshire , Feb 4, 2016

If the US does not lead, there is a vacuum

Q: What's your proposal for what comes after Assad?

O'MALLEY: I believe that we need to focus on destroying ISIL. But we shouldn't be the ones declaring that Assad must go. Where did it ever say in the Constitution, that it's the job of the U.S. to determine when dictators have to go?

CLINTON: Assad has killed, by last count, about 250,000 Syrians. The reason we are in the mess we're in, that ISIS has the territory it has, is because of Assad. We now finally have a strategy and a commitment to go after ISIS. And we finally have a U.N. Security Council Resolution bringing the world together to go after a political transition in Syria. If the United States does not lead, there is not another leader. There is a vacuum. And we have to lead, if we're going to be successful.

SANDERS: Of course the United States must lead. But the US is not the policeman of the world. The US must not be involved in perpetual warfare in the Middle East.

Source: 2015 ABC/WMUR Democratic primary debate in N.H. , Dec 19, 2015

Some world leaders are still misogynistic

At Ewha Woman's University in Seoul, South Korea, I saw how reaching out to young people was going to take me into territory beyond traditional foreign policy concerns. As I stepped onto the stage at Ewha, the audience erupted in cheers. Then the young women lined up at the microphone to ask me some highly personal questions--respectfully, but eagerly.

"Is it difficult to deal with misogynistic leaders around the world?"

I responded that I would guess that many leaders choose to ignore the fact that they're dealing with a woman when they're dealing with me. But I try not to let them get away with that. (Nonetheless, it is an unfortunate reality that women in public life still face an unfair double standard. Even leaders like former Prime Minister Julia Gillard of Australia have faced outrageous sexism, which shouldn't be tolerated in any country.)

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p. 50 , Jun 10, 2014

Idealistic realism: embody hybrid rather than categorizing

[In the] running debate between so-called realists and idealists, the former place national security ahead of human rights, while the latter do the opposite. Those are categories that I find overly simplistic. No one should have any illusions about the gravity of the security threats America faces, and as Secretary I had no higher responsibility than to protect our citizens and our country. But at the same time, upholding universal values and human rights is at the core of what it means to be American. If we sacrifice those values or let our policies diverge too far from our ideals, our influence will wane.

There are times when we do have to make difficult compromises. Our challenge is to be clear-eyed about the world as it is while never losing sight of the world as we want it to become. That's why I don't mind that I've been called both an idealist & a realist over the years. I prefer being considered a hybrid, perhaps an idealistic realist. Because I, like our country, embody both tendencies.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p.566 , Jun 10, 2014

2009: Chose Japan as first destination to emphasize alliance

I first visited Japan with Bill as part of a trade delegation from Arkansas during his governorship. The country then was an object of growing anxiety in the US. Japan's "Economic Miracle" came to symbolize deep-seated fears about US stagnation and decline.

In those days there were legitimate concerns about America's economic future. [But by our visit in] summer 1993, we could already see that America was regaining its economic strength. Japan, by contrast, faced a "Lost Decade" after its assets and credit bubble burst, leaving banks and other businesses loaded down with bad debt. Its economy, once feared by Americans, slowed to an anemic pace--which caused a whole different set of concerns for them and us. Japan was still one of the largest economies in the world and a key partner in responding to the global financial crisis. I chose Tokyo as my first destination to underscore that our new administration saw the alliance as a cornerstone of our strategy in the region.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p. 47-8 , Jun 10, 2014

Smart power: combine civil society & traditional diplomacy

I approached my work with confidence in our country's enduring strengths and purpose, and humility about how much remains beyond our knowledge and control. I worked to reorient American foreign policy around what I call "smart power." To succeed in the 21st century, we need to integrate the traditional tools of foreign policy--diplomacy, development assistance, and military force--while also tapping the energy and ideas of the private sector and empowering citizens, especially the activists, organizers, and problem solvers we call civil society, to meet their own challenges and shape their own futures. We have to use all of America's strengths to build a world with more partners and fewer adversaries, more shared responsibility and fewer conflicts, more good jobs and less poverty, more broadly based prosperity with less damage to our environment.
Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, pre-release excerpts , May 25, 2014

Does US still have what it takes to lead? Yes!

I wrote this book to honor the exceptional diplomats and development experts whom I had the honor of leading as America's 67th Secretary of State. I wrote it for anyone anywhere who wonders whether the United States still has what it takes to lead. For me, the answer is a resounding "Yes." Talk of America's decline has become commonplace, but my faith in our future has never been greater. While there are few problems in today's world that the US can solve alone, there are even fewer that can be solved without the US. Everything that I have done and seen has convinced me that America remains the "indispensable nation." I am just as convinced, however, that our leadership is not a birthright. It must be earned by every generation.

And it will be--so long as we stay true to our values and remember that, before we are Republicans or Democrats, liberals or conservatives, or any of the other labels that divide us as often as define us, we are Americans, all with a personal stake in our country.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, pre-release excerpts , May 25, 2014

Distinguish inherited problems from new ones & opportunities

As Secretary of State I thought of our choices and challenges in three categories: The problems we inherited, including two wars and a global financial crisis; the new, often unexpected events and emerging threats, from the shifting sands of the Middle East to the turbulent waters of the Pacific to the uncharted terrain of cyberspace; and the opportunities presented by an increasingly networked world that could help lay the foundation for American prosperity and leadership in the 21st century.
Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, pre-release excerpts , May 25, 2014

"Smart power" combines diplomacy and development

Hillary Clinton saw the job as a kind of reformatting of the State Department itself to prepare for the longer-run issues. "I'd been told that it was a choice that had to be made: You could either do what had to be done around the world, or you could organize and focus the work that was done inside State and the Agency for International Development, but I rejected that," says Clinton. "I thought it was essential that as we restore America's standing in the world and strengthen our global leadership again, we needed what I took to calling 'smart power' to elevate American diplomacy and development and reposition them for the 21st century. That meant that we had to take a hard look at how both State and A.I.D. operated. I did work to increase their funding after a very difficult period when they were political footballs to some extent and they didn't have the resources to do what was demanded of them."
Source: New York Magazine interview, "Hillary in Midair" , Sep 22, 2013

America is the "indispensable nation"

Quite a few of the ideas voiced by Obama, Hillary Clinton and other Democratic leaders today date back to the period of ferment in the 1970s. One was the idea of America as the "indispensible nation." Hillary Clinton used this phrase as Obama's secretary of state, explicitly borrowing the words used in the 1990s by Bill Clinton and his secretary of state Madeleine Albright.

But the words didn't originate with them, either. In a 1976 article in "Foreign Policy," Zbigniew Brzezinski wrote of "America the indispensible." Despite its defeat in Vietnam, he argued, American power remains "central to global stability and progress." During that period, Brzezinski argued that the US should start to give a much higher priority to its relationship with its allies.

Source: The Obamians, by James Mann, p. 20-21 , Jun 14, 2012

Ceremonial role abroad as First Lady, but no NSC meetings

Hillary Clinton was not closely involved in the day-to-day foreign policy operations during Bill Clinton's term. [However], as First Lady, Hillary played a powerful behind-the-scenes role in many of the administration's decisions and a ceremonial role on trips overseas.

Later on, during the presidential campaign against Obama, Hillary Clinton would assert that these efforts demonstrated her experience in foreign policy. But [one of Bill Clinton's appointees from the] State Department said, "she did not sit in on National Security Council meetings. She did not have a security clearance. She did not manage any part of the national security bureaucracy, nor did she have her own national security staff. She did not do any heavy lifting with foreign governments, whether they were friendly or not." Her most tangible influence in foreign policy was in selecting personnel: She played an important role in persuading President Clinton to select Madeleine Albright as his second secretary of state.

Source: The Obamians, by James Mann, p. 43-44 , Jun 14, 2012

New American Moment: new ways of global leadership

She didn't want Obama's speech to be misinterpreted overseas as a sign that America was in retreat, that it would bring its troops home and turn inward.

Clinton began by saying that the world's problems required bringing people together "as only America can." Foreign leaders and ordinary people overseas "look to America not just to engage, but to lead," she said. Then she quickly came to the heart of her speech: "Let me say it clearly: The US can, must and will lead in this new century."

This was a "New American Moment," Clinton said, the words capitalized in the transcript of the speech to indicate a special phrase meant to be highlighted. It was "a moment when our global leadership is essential, even if we must often lead in new ways." When she extolled the virtues of diplomacy, she immediately added, "Of course, this administration is also committed to maintaining the greatest military in the history of the world, and, if needed, to vigorously defend ourselves and our friends."

Source: The Obamians, by James Mann, p.249 , Jun 14, 2012

1% of budget on foreign aid maintains our global leadership

Clinton discussed the benefits of foreign aid at the annual "Investing in the Future: A Smart Power Approach to Global Leadership" conference hosted by the US Global Leadership Coalition.

"The 1% of our budget we spend on all diplomacy and development is not what is driving our deficit. Not only can we afford to maintain a strong civilian presence, we cannot afford not to. The simple truth is, if we don't seize the opportunities available today, other countries will; other countries will fight for their companies while ours fend for themselves. Other countries will promote their own models and serve their own interests, instead of opening markets, reinforcing the rule of law and creating widespread inclusive growth. Other countries will create the jobs that should be created here, and even claim the mantle of global leadership."

Clinton cited the Marshall Plan [in post-WWII] Europe, which established a long-term economic partnership with the US that now grosses $250 billion annually.

Source: ONE.org, "Importance of US foreign aid," by M. Glauberman , Jul 13, 2011

2009: Regrets US not part of International Criminal Court

The Obama administration has broader ambitions including an ill-conceived desire to join the International Criminal Court (ICC). The Clinton administration initially signed the ICC's founding document, the Rome Statute, in June 1998, but there was no prospect that the Senate would ratify it.

To date, the ICC has proceeded slowly, partly in the hope of enticing the US to cooperate with it, and the Bush administration succumbed to it in its final years. The ICC's friends under President Obama want to go even further. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said in 2009, for example, that it was "a great regret but it is a fact we are not yet a signatory" to the Rome Statute, signaling unmistakably what she hopes to do.

The Obama administration's willingness to submit US conduct to international judicial review also extends to the concept of "universal jurisdiction," which permits even countries utterly unrelated to an event to initiate criminal prosecutions regarding it.

Source: Obama is Endangering our Sovereignty, by J. Bolton, p. 25-26 , May 18, 2010

Commit to helping people abroad before committing troops

Q: Underdeveloped nations that lack widespread access to education and basic resources like water tend to be some of the most unstable and dangerous regions of the world. As president, would you consider committing US troops to a purely humanitarian mission under the leadership of a foreign flag?

A: I believe strongly that we have to get back to leading on issues like health care and education and women’s rights around the world. I have introduced bipartisan legislation called The Education for Al Act, to have the US lead the world in putting the 77 million kids who aren’t in school into school. I believe we should demonstrate our commitment to people who are poor, disenfranchised, disempowered before we talk about putting troops anywhere. The US has to be seen again as a peacekeeper, and we have lost that standing in these last seven years. So I think we have to concentrate first and foremost on restoring our moral authority in the world and our standing in the world.

Source: 2008 Democratic Compassion Forum at Messiah College , Apr 13, 2008

Establish leadership & moral authority via multilateralism

Q: When future historians write of your administration’s foreign policy pursuits, what will be noted as your doctrine and the vision you cast for U.S. diplomatic relations?

A: It will be a doctrine of restoring America’s leadership and moral authority through multilateral organizations, through attempts to come to agreements on issues ranging from global warming to stopping the proliferation of nuclear weapons and other dangerous weapons. It will be a doctrine that demonstrates that the United States is not afraid to cooperate; that through cooperation in our interdependent world, we actually can build a stronger country and a stronger world that will be more reflective of our values.

Source: 2007 Des Moines Register Democratic debate , Dec 13, 2007

Operate from a position of strength, but not confrontation

Q: Should we believe that the U.S. relationship with China under a Hillary Clinton administration would be less one of cooperation and engagement and one more akin to confrontation?

A: No, absolutely not. It would be a position where we would operate from strength with a coherent policy about what our interests were and what we hope to achieve.

Source: 2007 Democratic radio debate on NPR , Dec 4, 2007

Supported strong funding for international development

Hillary worked quietly with her husband’s top officials on their budgets and policy priorities in areas that interested her, such as the US Agency for International Development. Brian Atwood, the director of USAID, said that Hillary “deserves more credit. than anyone” for securing an increase in funding for his agency in 1997.
Source: For Love of Politics, by Sally Bedell Smith, p.263 , Oct 23, 2007

Should not telegraph our adversaries about preconditions

Q: Is Sen. Obama “not yet ready” to be president?

CLINTON: I’m running on my own qualifications and experience. It’s really up to the voters to make these decisions. I think we have a great group of candidates. You don’t have to be against anybody. You can choose who you’re for.

Q: But you did say that Sen. Obama’s views on meeting with foreign dictators are “naive and irresponsible.” Doesn’t that imply that he’s not ready for the office?

CLINTON: Well, we had a specific disagreement, because I do not think that a president should give away the bargaining chip of a personal meeting with any leader, unless you know what you’re going to get out of that. It takes a lot of planning to move an agenda forward, particularly with our adversaries. You should not telegraph to our adversaries that you’re willing to meet with them without preconditions during the first year in office.

OBAMA: Strong countries and strong presidents meet and talk with our adversaries. We shouldn’t be afraid to do so.

Source: 2007 Democratic primary debate on “This Week” , Aug 19, 2007

Diplomacy yes; propaganda no; when meeting enemy leaders

Q: Would you be willing to meet separately, without precondition, during the first year of your administration, with the leaders of Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba & N.Korea?

OBAMA: I would. The notion that somehow not talking to countries is punishment to them is ridiculous. I think that it is a disgrace that we have not spoken to them.

CLINTON: I will not promise to meet with the leaders of these countries during my first year. I will promise a very vigorous diplomatic effort but not a high level meeting before you know what the intentions are. I don’t want to be used for propaganda purposes. But I certainly agree that we need to get back to diplomacy, which has been turned into a bad word by this administration. I will use a lot of high-level presidential envoys to test the waters, to feel the way. But certainly, we’re not going to just have our president meet with Fidel Castro & Hugo Chavez & the president of North Korea, Iran & Syria until we know better what the way forward would be.

Source: 2007 YouTube Democratic Primary debate, Charleston SC , Jul 23, 2007

More cautiously internationalist than Bill Clinton

Just how far apart are Mr. and Mrs. Clinton on the question of global economic integration? The gap is yawning. For the former president, three sweeping and historic trade agreements did much to cement his reputation as bone-deep internationalist: the passage of NAFTA, the ratification of the Uruguay Round of the GATT, and the extension of permanent normal trading status to China and its inclusion in the WTO.

But for the current senator, much of this apparently seems dubious, at least as a road map to the future. "We just can't keep doing what we did in the twentieth century," she said, adding that we may need "a little time-out" before the enactment of any further trade deals. Accordingly, in 2005, she voted against CAFTA, and she has even repeatedly spouted skepticism about the wisdom of NAFTA--while stopping short of blaming her husband for its deficiencies: "I believe in the general principles NAFTA represented, but what we have learned is that we have to drive a tougher bargain."

Source: New York Magazine, "Marital Discord," by John Heilemann , Jul 9, 2007

Support UN reform because US benefits

(Senator Hillary Clinton, Munich Conference on Security Policy, February 13, 2005)
Source: The Case for Hillary Clinton, by Susan Estrich, p.212-213 , Oct 17, 2005

Supports USAID projects in developing world

My visit to the subcontinent was meant to demonstrate that this strategic and volatile part of the world was important to the US and that Bill supported their efforts to strengthen democracy, expand free markets and promote tolerance and human rights.

Source: Living History, by Hillary Rodham Clinton, p.268-270 , Nov 1, 2003

Focus on women's rights in international policy

China had been chosen to host the upcoming UN Fourth World Conference on Women, and I was scheduled to attend as honorary Chair of the US delegation.

Typically, governments limit their foreign policies to diplomatic, military and trade issues, the staple of most treaties, pacts and negotiations. Seldom are issues such as women's health, the education of girls, the absence of women's legal and political rights or their economic isolation injected into the foreign policy debate. Yet it was clear to me that in the new global economy, individual countries and regions would find it difficult to make economic or social progress if a disproportionate percentage of their female population remained poor, uneducated, unhealthy, and disenfranchised.

The UN women's conference was expected to provide an important forum for nations to address issues such as maternal and child health care, microfinance, domestic violence, girls' education, family planning, women's suffrage, property and legal rights.

Source: Living History, by Hillary Rodham Clinton, p.298-299 , Nov 1, 2003

Engage in world affairs, including human rights

Hillary Clinton called for the US to reject isolationism and aggressively engage itself in world affairs in the tradition of President Truman at the end of WWII. Staking out a more internationalist position than many of her fellow Democrats, Clinton called for expanding the definition of American interests beyond the loss of American lives and the protection of American dollars to include such things as women’s and human rights, environmental protection and the spread of deadly diseases.
Source: Dean Murphy, NY Times , Oct 20, 2000

Human rights are central to our objectives abroad

“At this decisive moment in our history, I believe America needs a renewed internationalism, not an old isolation,” Clinton said. “It very much is in our interest to assert the leadership required to meet our strategic and national security needs and interests around the world.” Saying that the US should do more than just intervene in “splendid little wars” in which it can prevail, Clinton claimed she reflected the views of NY’s current senator, Daniel Patrick Moynihan.

And while aligning herself with her husband on many issues, she called for a broader foreign policy mandate that, for instance, considers disease fighting a national security issue and deems the rights of women a priority. “I think it has become increasingly clear that our efforts to ensure democracy and human rights cannot be considered marginal but are indeed central to our foreign policy objectives this century,” Mrs. Clinton said.

Source: Dean Murphy, NY Times , Oct 20, 2000

Smartest strategic choice is peace

By working for peace, we are not being naive or soft-headed. We recognize that peace in the Middle East is not only a moral imperative, but the smartest strategic choice to ensure security for the children of Israel. That doesn’t mean that Israel can ever let down her defenses. It doesn’t mean that her friends, especially the US, will ever be relieved of our responsibility to help Israel maintain her military strength.The work of peace and the work of democracy are neverending.
Source: Remarks at Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center , Nov 11, 1999

Foreign aid spending is only 1%; lead by remaining engaged

I think many people are mistaken about how much money we spend on foreign aid. We spend 1%, and many believe we spend 25%. That 1% investment has made a difference in solving problems but also in helping America to be stronger by solving problems around the world. We sometimes learn lessons we can bring home. I want us to continue to be a leader, and you don’t lead from behind walls. You don’t lead by walking away from the world. I think you lead by remaining engaged and trying to shape events.
Source: Unique Voice, p.111-12 , Feb 3, 1997

Supports micro-loans to third-world women

From the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh to the Self-employed Women’s Association in India, or to the work in Ghana, to banks and programs modeled on these from Indonesia to the Dominican Republic, to my own country, we have seen that microlending works. Women who have received loans from the Grameen Bank, for example, have a repayment rate of 97%, and often within one year. And they invest their money well.
Source: Unique Voice, p.115-16: Remarks to UN Development Fund , Sep 6, 1995

Hillary Clinton on China

China never fits neatly into category like friend or rival

The US-China relationship is still full of challenges. We are two large, complex nations with profoundly different histories, political systems, and outlooks, whose economies and futures have become deeply entwined. This isn't a relationship that fits neatly into categories like friend or rival, and it may never. We are sailing in uncharted waters.

[In my 1998 China trip as First Lady], I came home from the trip convinced that if China over time embraces reform and modernization, it could become a constructive world power and an important partner for the US.

I returned to China as Secretary in February 2009 with the goal of building a relationship durable enough to weather the inevitable disputes and crises that would arise. I also wanted to embed the China relationship in our broader Asia strategy, engaging Beijing in the region's multilateral institutions [based on] agreed-upon rules. [But] we would not sacrifice our values or our traditional allies in order to win better terms with China.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p. 65-7 , Jun 10, 2014

Get China involved with North Korea diplomacy

Many of North Korea's 25 million people live in abject poverty. Yet the regime devotes most of its limited resources to supporting its military, developing nuclear weapons, and antagonizing its neighbors.

In my public remarks [in Feb. 2009] in Seoul I extended an invitation to the North Koreans. If they would completely and verifiably eliminate their nuclear weapons program, we would be willing to normalize relations, and assist in meeting the economic and humanitarian needs of the North Korean people. If not, the regime's isolation would continue. It was an opening gambit that was not one I thought likely to succeed. But we started off with the offer of engagement knowing it would be easier to get other nations to pressure North Korea if and when the offer was rejected. It was particularly important for China, a longtime patron and protector of the regime in Pyongyang, to be part of a united international front. [The opening failed, as have numerous others since then].

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p. 53-4 , Jun 10, 2014

China never fits neatly into category like friend or rival

The US-China relationship is still full of challenges. We are two large, complex nations with profoundly different histories, political systems, and outlooks, whose economies and futures have become deeply entwined. This isn't a relationship that fits neatly into categories like friend or rival, and it may never. We are sailing in uncharted waters.

[In 1998], I came home from the trip convinced that if China over time embraces reform and modernization, it could become a constructive world power and an important partner for the US. But it was not going to be easy, and America would have to be smart and vigilant in how we engaged this growing nation.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p. 65-6 , Jun 10, 2014

Embed China within broader Asia strategy

I returned to China as Secretary in February 2009 with the goal of building a relationship durable enough to weather the inevitable disputes and crises that would arise. I also wanted to embed the China relationship in our broader Asia strategy, engaging Beijing in the region's multilateral institutions in ways that would encourage it to work with its neighbors according to agreed-upon rules. At the same time, I wanted China to know that it was not the sole focus of our attention in Asia. We would not sacrifice our values or our traditional allies in order to win better terms with China. Despite its impressive economic growth and advances in military capacity, it had not yet come close to surpassing the US as the most powerful nation in the Asia-Pacific. We were prepared to engage from a position of strength.
Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p. 66-7 , Jun 10, 2014

Balance American interests between China & Korea

I decided to use my first trip as Secretary to accomplish three goals: visit our key Asian allies, Japan and South Korea; reach out to Indonesia; an emerging regional power and the home of ASEAN; and begin our crucial engagement with China.

We talked about how to balance America's interests in Asia, which sometimes seemed in competition. For example, how hard could we push the Chinese on human rights or climate change and still gain their support on security issues like Iran and North Korea Q [to Gov. O'Malley]: How many Syrian refugees should the US take in?

O'MALLEY: I was the first person on this stage to say that we should accept the 65,000 Syrian refugees that were fleeing the sort of murder of ISIL, and I believe that that needs to be done with proper screening.

Q: Secretary Clinton, how do you propose we screen those coming in to keep citizens safe?

CLINTON: I think that is the number one requirement. I also said that we should take increased numbers of refugees.

Source: Link , Jun 10, 2014

Freedom of navigation & open access in South China Sea

[At a meeting] in Hanoi about China's expansive maritime claims, Vietnam quickly brought up the subject of the South China Sea, and several other Southeast Asian countries followed. Clinton, speaking last, took her audience by surprise. Freedom of navigation was a "national interest" of the US, she said--a phrase that sounded like a counter to China's talk about "core interests." She said the US was determined to maintain open access to the South China Sea, in effect rejecting China's claims to sovereignty there. Much of the world's shipping tonnage--including oil from the Middle East to northeast Asia--passes through the South China Sea. Clinton said the US would be willing to serve as an intermediary or facilitator for multilateral talks over the competing claims.

The US was, in effect, rejecting China's claims in the South China Sea. Its suggestion of multilateral talks also undercut China's strategy; Vietnam had most eagerly sought to "internationalize" its dispute with China.

Source: The Obamians, by James Mann, p.246 , Jun 14, 2012

Boycott Olympic ceremony to pressure China on Tibet & Sudan

Q: China has continued to persecute the people of Tibet. China is not doing all it can to stop the genocide in Darfur. Is our participation in the Beijing Olympics harmful to that our voice in the world?

A: Last week I called on our president to not attend the opening ceremonies of the Olympics [to protest] Beijing government’s actions. [We should push] the Chinese to end the suppression of Tibetans and undermining their culture & religious beliefs, and to get more cooperation with respect to Sudan. But the challenge is, how do we try to influence the Chinese government? I believe we have missed many opportunities during the Bush administration to do so. In fact, I think it’s fair to say our policy toward China is incoherent and that has not been in our strategic interest. So I would urge the president to not attend the opening ceremonies, and let’s see whether the Chinese government responds because that would be a great loss of face and perhaps we would get more cooperation.

Source: 2008 Democratic Compassion Forum at Messiah College , Apr 13, 2008

Establish coherent diplomatic approach toward China

Q: Who has more leverage, China or the US?

A: We currently still have more leverage, but it doesn’t really count because we’re not using it. We have handicapped ourselves because of Bush’s irresponsible fiscal policies, but we’ve also, unfortunately, seen an incoherent foreign policy. I fear that if we don’t start taking steps to demonstrate that we are back in charge of our fiscal destiny, that we do have a coherent diplomatic approach toward China, China will continue to gain leverage over us.

Source: 2007 Des Moines Register Democratic debate , Dec 13, 2007

China respects us if we call them on human rights breaches

Q: Many talk tough about China and its human rights record in the past but, in the end, favor securing our economic interest rather than risk upsetting China. How would you balance human rights & trade with China?

A: You know, 12 years ago, I went to China, and the Chinese didn’t want me to come. And they didn’t want me to make a speech, and when I made the speech, they blocked it out from being heard within China, where I stood up for human rights and in particular women’s rights, because women had been so brutally abused in many settings in China. And I think you do have to call them on human rights. I mean, the Chinese respect us if we actually call them on their misbehavior and their breaches of human rights, economic activities and other kinds of problems that we have with them. That’s what I object to about this administration. We’ve gotten the worst of both worlds. We’ve gotten neither the kind of smart enforcement nor the kind of cooperation that might lead to changes in behavior.

Source: 2007 Democratic radio debate on NPR , Dec 4, 2007

FactCheck: Chinese did black out Hillary, but DID invite her

Clinton stretched the facts when she claimed the Chinese didn’t want her to come to the UN Conference on Women in 1995. Clinton said, “The Chinese didn’t want me to come... & didn’t want me to make a speech, and when I made the speech, they blocked it out from being heard within China.”

Most of what Clinton said is true. The Chinese certainly weren’t eager for her speech to be widely heard. They blacked it out, allowing just 5,000 carefully selected Party members to hear it. From their perspective, they may have been right to do so. She was critical of China’s human rights record in general, especially its treatment of women. Republicans and Democrats alike praised the tough tone of her speech.

But contrary to Clinton’s claim, the Chinese very much wanted her to come; she was considered a prize catch. The government even released an American, human rights activist Harry Wu, whom they had convicted of espionage, at least in part as a good faith gesture to convince Clinton to attend the event.

Source: FactCheck on 2007 Democratic radio debate on NPR , Dec 4, 2007

Our fiscal responsibility undercuts Chinese power over us

Q: Is China an ally or an adversary?

BIDEN: They’re neither. The fact of the matter is, though, they hold the mortgage on our house. This administration, in order to fund a war that shouldn’t be being fought and tax cuts that weren’t needed--we’re now in debt almost a trillion dollars to China.

CLINTON: I want to say amen to Joe Biden, because he’s 100% right. You know, 6 years ago, we had a balanced budget and a surplus; now we are in deep debt with a rising deficit, and it is absolutely true that George Bush has put it on the credit card, expecting our children and grandchildren to pay for it. We’ve got to get back to fiscal responsibility in order to undercut the Chinese power over us because of the debt we hold. We also have to deal with their currency manipulation. We have to have tougher standards on what they import into this country. I do not want to eat bad food from China or have my children having toys that are going to get them sick. So let’s be tougher on China going forward.

Source: 2007 AFL-CIO Democratic primary forum , Aug 8, 2007

China: criticized authoritarianism with women & children

Could the First Lady of the US go to China and criticize its government for authoritarian practices in dealing with women, children, and political activists? The very thought made traditionalists in the White House and the State Department shudder. Her chief of staff said, “More people thought she should not go. Hillary felt strongly she should.”

[At the conference], the First Lady lambasted China’s Communist government for suppressing free speech and the right to assemble at the grassroots women’s forum [of the UN Conference]. She inspired the women there to make their voices heard against selling girls into prostitution, against rape as a tactic of war, against forced abortion or sterilization. “Human rights are women’s rights. And women’s rights are human rights, once and for all.”

Source: Hillary’s Choice by Gail Sheehy, p.275-277 , Dec 9, 1999

Hillary Clinton on Latin America

Talk with dissidents but Castros are dictators

Q: Your position on Cuba?

SANDERS: I think we have got to end the embargo. I believe that we should move towards full and normalized political relations with Cuba. I think it will be a good thing for the Cuban people. It will enable them, I think when they see people coming into their country from the United States, move in a more democratic direction, which is what I want to see.

CLINTON: I told the president that I hoped he would be able to move toward diplomatic relations with Cuba. And there are no better ambassadors for freedom, democracy and economic opportunity than Cuban Americans. I'm looking forward to following the president's trip. I think meeting with dissidents is important. The Cuban people deserve be able to move towards democracy where they pick their own leads. Both Castros have to be considered authoritarian and dictatorial because they are not freely chosen by the people. I hope someday there will be leaders who are chosen by the Cuban people.

Source: 2016 PBS Democratic primary debate in Miami , Mar 9, 2016

Give Puerto Rico authority to restructure their debt

Q: Will you help Puerto Rico restructure its debt in 1st 100 days?

SANDERS: When you get to Puerto Rico, there's an issue that we have not talked about. That island is $73 billion in debt and the government is paying interest rates of up to 11 percent. Many of the bonds they are paying off were purchased by vulture capitalists for 30 cents on the dollar. What I have said in talking to the leaders of Puerto Rico, we've got to bring people together. Some of these vulture capitalists are going to have to lose money in this process.

CLINTON: Absolutely. I have been calling for months that the Congress must give authority to Puerto Rico to restructure its debts. Just like it has enabled states and cities to restructure their debt. It's a grave injustice for the Congress to refuse to enact that opportunity within the bankruptcy law. They deserve to be treated as citizens and to be given the opportunity to get back on their feet economically.

Source: 2016 PBS Democratic primary debate in Miami , Mar 9, 2016

Integrate with Latin America but focus on income inequality

[In 2009], economic inequality in Latin America was still among the worst in the world. I argued that a key challenge in the years ahead would be to make sure that the benefits of economic growth were broadly shared and that the region's democracies delivered concrete results for their citizens. "Rather than defining economic progress simply by profit margins and GDP, our yardstick must be the quality of human lives," I suggested, so we should be measuring "whether families have enough food on the table, whether young people have access to schooling, whether workers have safe conditions on the job."

A number of Latin American countries, notably Brazil, Mexico, and Chile, had already found success in reducing inequality and lifting people out of poverty. [Some successful policies include] "conditional cash transfer" programs; cooperation on energy and climate change; and on linking different national and regional electrical grids from northern Canada all the way down to the tip of Chile.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p.254-5 , Jun 10, 2014

End the Cuban embargo; that will shift onus to Castros

Hillary Clinton says she has urged President Obama to lift the US embargo against Cuba, arguing the policy has hurt citizens of both nations. "Since 1960, the United States had maintained an embargo against the island in hopes of squeezing Castro from power, but it only succeeded in giving him a foil to blame for Cuba's economic woes," Clinton writes in an excerpt from her new book.

Clinton said she told Obama the embargo "wasn't achieving its goals" and "was holding back our broader agenda across Latin America."

"I thought we should shift the onus onto the Castros to explain why they remained undemocratic and abusive," Clinton writes. But President Obama ultimately decided to maintain the economic restrictions, she said.

In 2011, the White House said it would allow students seeking academic credit and churches making religious trips to visit the island. Additionally, the administration expanded the number of US airports permitted to offer charter service to the island.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, A.P. pre-release excerpts , Jun 6, 2014

Focus on BRICs: Brazil, Russia, India, China, & South Africa

Early on, the Obama administration seemed to embrace a new concept: Its diplomacy would emphasize 4 emerging economic powers called the BRICs, or Brazil, Russia, India & China. (Later on, South Africa was sometimes added as a 5th country, conveniently taking up the letter S.) The idea originally came from Wall Street: In 2001, a Goldman-Sachs economist invented the concept of the BRICs to describe the 4 emerging economies that he believed would play an increasingly important role in the world markets. By 2009, the term had become an addition to the jargon of foreign policy, and the Obama team began to talk about the importance of the BRICs in their speeches. In her first major speech as secretary of state, Clinton said that the Obama administration, while reinvigorating its traditional alliances, "will also put special emphasis on encouraging major emerging global powers--China, India, Russia & Brazil, as well as Turkey, Indonesia & South Africa--to be full partners in tackling the global agenda."
Source: The Obamians, by James Mann, p.174 , Jun 14, 2012

Meet with Cuban leaders only after evidence of change

Q: Would you be willing to sit down with Raul Castro, to get a measure of the man?

A: The people of Cuba deserve to have a democracy. And this gives the Cuban government, under Raul Castro, a chance to change direction from the one that was set for 50 years by his brother. I’m going to be looking for some of those changes: releasing political prisoner, ending some of the oppressive practices on the press, opening up the economy. Of course the US stands ready. And, as president, I would be ready to reach out and work with a new Cuban government, once it demonstrated that it truly was going to change that direction.

Q: Very simply, would you meet with Raul Castro or not?

A: I would not meet with him until there was evidence that change was happening. A presidential visit should not be offered without some evidence that it will demonstrate the kind of progress that is in our interest, and in this case, in the interests of the Cuban people.

Source: 2008 Democratic debate at University of Texas in Austin , Feb 21, 2008

Cuba deserves peaceful transition to freedom & democracy

Q: What do you think would happen in Cuba without Fidel Castro? And what role would the US play in that transition?

A: The Cuban people deserve freedom and democracy, and we’re all hopeful that that can be brought about peacefully. It appears as though the reign of Castro is reaching an end. We don’t know what will follow Fidel Castro, but we need to do everything we can to work with our friends in Latin America who are democratic nations, with the Europeans and others, to try to bring about a peaceful transition to democracy and freedom for the Cuban people. Now, that requires that we work with the entire hemisphere. You know, in 1994 I remember being here in Miami when my husband hosted the Summit of the Americas. At that time, there was only one anti-democratic, anti-American leader in the hemisphere, namely Castro. Look at what we face today because of the misguided, bullying policies of this president. So let’s reverse it and get ready for freedom in Cuba!

Source: 2007 Democratic primary debate on Univision in Spanish , Sep 9, 2007

Keep Cuban embargo; pay UN bills

Hillary Clinton said she would oppose lifting the embargo against Cuba until democracy took root there. She said she would support paying America’s unpaid bills to the United Nations. She once again voiced her support for Israel and, while praising the tentative cease-fire agreement between the Israelis and Palestinians reached Monday, she made it clear the burden was on Yasir Arafat to end the violence.
Source: Dean Murphy, NY Times , Oct 20, 2000

Hillary Clinton on Middle East

Should admit carefully vetted war refugees on moral grounds

Q: Why take the risk of having Syrian refugees come into the country?

A: First of all, I will not let anyone into our country that I think poses a risk to us. But there are a lot of refugees, women & children--think of that picture we all saw of that 4-year-old boy with the blood on his forehead because he'd been bombed by the Russian and Syrian air forces. We need to do our part. We by no means are carrying anywhere near the load that Europe and others are. But we will have vetting that is as tough as it needs to be from our intelligence experts and others. It is important for us not to say, as Trump has said, "we're going to ban people based on a religion." We are a country founded on religious freedom and liberty. How do we do what he has advocated without causing great distress within our own country? What he said was extremely unwise and even dangerous. You can look at the propaganda on a lot of the terrorists sites, and what Trump says about Muslims is used to recruit fighters.

Source: Second 2016 Presidential Debate at WUSTL in St. Louis MO , Oct 9, 2016

Glad the deal took nuclear off the table with Iran

Trump: [The Iran nuclear deal was] one of the great giveaways of all time, including $1.7 billion in cash. This is one of the worst deals ever made by any country in history. The deal with Iran will lead to nuclear problems. They don't have to do much.

Clinton: It's important that we look at the entire global situation. There's no doubt that we have other problems with Iran. I'd rather deal with the other problems having put that lid on their nuclear program.

Source: First 2016 Presidential Debate at Hofstra University , Sep 26, 2016

We achieved a lot, but not yet normal relations with Iran

SANDERS: I recall when Secretary Clinton ran against then-Senator Obama, she was critical of him for suggesting that maybe you want to talk to Iran, that you want to talk to our enemies. Iran is sponsoring terrorism in many parts of the world, destabilizing areas. Everybody knows that. But our goal is to try to deal with our enemies, not just ignore that reality.

CLINTON: I think we have achieved a great deal with the Iranian nuclear agreement. That has to be enforced absolutely with consequences for Iran at the slightest deviation from their requirements under the agreement. I do not think we should promise or even look toward normalizing relations because we have a lot of other business to get done with Iran. Yes, they have to stop being the main state sponsor of terrorism. Yes, they have to stop trying to destabilize the Middle East, causing even more chaos.

Source: 2016 PBS Democratic debate in Wisconsin , Feb 11, 2016

We should accept 65,000 Syrian refugees, vetted and screened

Q [to Gov. O'Malley]: How many Syrian refugees should the US take in?

O'MALLEY: I was the first person on this stage to say that we should accept the 65,000 Syrian refugees that were fleeing the sort of murder of ISIL, and I believe that that needs to be done with proper screening.

Q: Secretary Clinton, how do you propose we screen those coming in to keep citizens safe?

CLINTON: I think that is the number one requirement. I also said that we should take increased numbers of refugees. The administration originally said 10. I said we should go to 65, but only if we have as careful a screening and vetting process as we can imagine, whatever resources it takes because I do not want us to, in any way, inadvertently allow people who wish us harm to come into our country.

Source: 2015 CBS Democratic primary debate on Syrian Refugees , Nov 14, 2015

Stand up to Putin's bullying in Syria and elsewhere

Q: What would your response to Vladimir Putin be right now in Syria?

CLINTON: We have to stand up to his bullying, and in Syria, it is important to provide safe zones so that people are not going to have to be flooding out of Syria at the rate they are I think it's important that the US make it clear to Putin that it's not acceptable for him to be in Syria bombing people on behalf of Assad, and we can't do that if we don't take more of a leadership position, which is what I'm advocating.

Source: 2015 CNN Democratic primary debate in Las Vegas , Oct 13, 2015

ISIL is more advanced and well-funded than al Qaeda

Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton described the serious threat posed by Islamic State, saying the group is far more advanced and well-funded than al Qaeda ever was. "This is the best funded, most professional, expansionist Jihadist military force that we have seen ever," she said.

Clinton backed the strategies of the Obama administration in confronting Islamic State, which is also known as ISIS or ISIL. She described ISIL as not just a major risk to the stability of Middle East, but likely to try attacks on Western targets if given the opportunity.

The remarks came during a friendly interview with Chicago investor and philanthropist J.B. Pritzker who served as national co-chairman of the former first lady's 2008 presidential campaign. While touching on foreign affairs, Mrs. Clinton also weaved in personal stories about her childhood in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge and her assessment of Congress.

Source: Mark Peters in Wall Street Journal, "ISIS strongest threat" , Oct 8, 2014

Political restraint against Iran's Ahmadinejad was a mistake

Mrs. Clinton said the Obama administration's decision to offer a muted response to the political demonstrations that broke out against former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's re-election in 2009 was a mistake:

"In retrospect, I'm not sure our restraint was the right choice. It did not stop the regime from ruthlessly crushing the Green Movement, which was exceedingly painful to watch. More strident messages from the United States would probably not have prevented the outcome and might even have hastened it, but there's no way of knowing now if we could have made a difference." (Page 423)

Source: Wall Street Journal on Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton , Jun 17, 2014

2011: we abandoned Egypt's Mubarak too readily

Mrs. Clinton argues the White House moved too quickly to pull U.S. support for former Egyptian strongman Hosni Mubarak in 2011:

"Like many other young people around the world, some of President Obama's aides in the White House were swept up in the drama and idealism of the moment as they watched the pictures from Tahrir Square on television. I shared the feeling. It was a thrilling moment. But along with Vice President Biden, Secretary of Defense Bob Gates and National Security Advisor Tom Donilon, I was concerned that we not be seen as pushing a longtime partner out the door, leaving Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the region to an uncertain, dangerous future. (Pages 339-340)

Source: Wall Street Journal on Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton , Jun 17, 2014

Arab Spring: Egyptian uprising had destabilizing impact

Clinton writes that one of her envoys who she sent to deal with then-Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak displeased the White House when he said publicly that Mubarak should remain in power to "oversee a transition." Clinton was not among Obama advisers who wanted to side with the uprising instantly, and saw a potentially destabilizing impact if Mubarak left immediately.

"The President called me to express his unhappiness about the 'mixed messages' we were sending," she writes. "That's a diplomatic way of saying he took me to the woodshed."

There are some other instances throughout the book in which Clinton was in a different place than Obama, but this is the one of the only times in which she describes the president as genuinely unhappy with something that the State Department did.

Source: Politico.com on Hard Choices by Hillary Clinton , Jun 7, 2014

Work toward Arab Spring not being hijacked by extremists

Q: What about the Arab Spring?

A: I think that post the Arab revolutions that took place in Egypt and Libya and Tunisia, and elsewhere in the region, there was always going to be a period of adjustment. What we have to work for, along with the international community, is not to see these revolutions hijacked by extremists, not to see the return of dictatorial rule. It's hard going from decades under one party or one man rule, as somebody said, "waking up from a political coma and understanding democracy."

Q: Is President Morsi with us or not? He's said that the Holocaust didn't exist.

A: You have to look at the fact that the people now in power in these countries have never been in government, never had a chance to really learn how to run agencies or to make decisions. We don't condone what a lot of these leaders are doing, or failing to do. But we also know how important it is that we try to avoid even more extreme elements taking control of territory, even threatening a regime.

Source: Fox News "On the Record with Greta Van Susteren" , Jan 29, 2013

Afghan women are better off, but we must prevent reversal

Q: What about the women of Afghanistan? What can they expect as we leave?

A: They're going to have to be given support from their own government and people, as well as the international community.

Q: It's grim for them.

A: For a lot of [Afghan] women, life is much better [than before the US invasion]. Girls are in school who never were before. Women are able to practice their professions and pursue their businesses. So for an increasing group of Afghan women, life is better. Still, there are all kinds of discrimination and difficulties. But for a large group of rural women, life has not changed very much. And what I worry about is that the security situation will keep a total lid on the aspirations and education of the rural women and begin to intimidate and drive out of the public space women who have seen their lives improve. And I think it's incumbent upon us and all the nations that have been in Afghanistan to do everything we can to prevent that from happening.

Source: Fox News "On the Record with Greta Van Susteren" , Jan 29, 2013

2007: Traveled to Iraq & Afghanistan before announcement

Clinton announced on her website that she was running. "I'm in," she wrote. "And I'm in to win." It was Jan. 20, 2007, three weeks before Obama declared his candidacy.

In the days leading up to her announcement, Clinton traveled to Iraq & Afghanistan, flashing her national security expertise. She began a fund-raising drive that was designed to be a show of overwhelming force.

But, lurking just beneath the machismo, there was a defensiveness to the Clinton strategy. Polling found that Hillary was see by many as unelectable. Her experience as First Lady was discounted and her war vote held against her by the base.

Hillary's rollout was all about addressing these vulnerabilities: "in to win" and the fund-raising push, about electability; the soft-sel video, about her perceived hardness and inauthenticity; the trip to Iraq, about setting the stage for a further leftward shimmy on the war. (On returning, she declared her opposition to the troop surge announced by Bush two weeks earlier.)

Source: Game Change, by Heilemann & Halpern, p. 83-84 , Jan 11, 2010

2001 speech to AIPAC pledges money for Israeli military

On a visit to Gaza City in 1998, Hillary met with Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat and his wife and declared, well ahead of the official line from the White House, her support for a Palestinian state. Her husband’s spokesperson had to distance him from her comment.

As a senator, however, one of her first major speeches was to AIPAC, the Israeli lobby group where she pledged to work to send more money, not for peacekeeping, or to both sides, but for Israel’s military. (She’s spoken to AIPAC many times since.)

On the fortieth anniversary of the Israeli occupation of West Bank and Gaza, Clinton joined the rest of the Senate in sending a message of congratulations and support to the Israeli government. No encouraging message went to the Palestinians still enduring occupation.

Source: The Contenders, by Laura Flanders, p. 34 , Nov 11, 2007

Arabic and Muslim countries take women leaders seriously

Q: The Arab states, Muslim nations, treat their women as 2nd-class citizens. As president, how do you feel that you would even be taken seriously by these states in any kind of negotiations or diplomatic relations?

A: You know, when I was First Lady, I was privileged to represent our country in 82 countries. I have met with many officials in Arabic and Muslim countries. I have met with kings and presidents and prime ministers and sheiks and tribal leaders. And certainly, in the last years during my time in the Senate, I have had many high-level meetings with presidents and prime ministers in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kuwait, Pakistan and many other countries. I believe that there isn’t much doubt in anyone’s mind that I can be taken seriously. Other countries have had women presidents and women prime ministers. There are several serving now--in Germany, in Chile, in Liberia and elsewhere--and I have noticed that their compatriots on the world stage certainly take them seriously.

Source: 2007 YouTube Democratic Primary debate, Charleston SC , Jul 23, 2007

Allegedly pro-PLO in 1960; but pro-Israel by 1981

In 1981, while the Clintons campaigned to win back the governorship, their pastor, Vaught approached them about a trip to Israel. As Bill and Hillary found themselves struggling spiritually and politically to put Bill back in the governor’s mansion, the couple decided to go.

In contrast to the anti-Israel version of Hillary portrayed during parts of the 1970s, some sources claim this trip gave Hillary an inspired appreciation for the state of Israel, and if so, it may have mitigated her alleged pro-PLO sympathies, giving more balance in her perspective. A friend of the Clintons says: “Bill and Hillary understood the profound effect that Israel has on American Jews and around the world and share a feeling for the security and stability of the State of Israel.”

Source: God and Hillary Clinton, by Paul Kengor, p. 70-71 , Jul 18, 2007

Supported Palestine in 1998, before Bill officially did

In 1998, Hillary laid out her vision for the future of the Middle East: “It would be in the long-term interests of peace in the Middle East for there to be a state of Palestine, a functioning modern state that is on the same footing as other states.” The White House raced to clarify the remarks as Hillary’s own.

Several months later, while attending a meeting of the Palestinian National Council, Hillary praised Yasser Arafat’s leadership and again called for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state.

In 1999, while traveling in the Middle East, Hillary had a joint appearance with Yasser Arafat’s wife, Suha. Ms. Arafat took the occasion to accuse Israel of poisoning her people. It was an outlandish accusation, but it did not stop Hillary from giving Suha a kiss when she finished talking.

Roll forward 8 months. Hillary, now a candidate for the Senate, called for moving the US embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, “the eternal & indivisible capital of Israel.”

Source: The Extreme Makeover, by Bay Buchanan, p. 88-90 , May 14, 2007

Obligation to support Israel with more than foreign aid

(Senator Hillary Clinton, letter to Colin Powell, April 9, 2002)(Senator Hillary Clinton, American Israel Public Affairs Committee Policy Conference, May 24, 2005)
Source: The Case for Hillary Clinton, by Susan Estrich, p.210-211 , Oct 17, 2005

Alienated Jewish voters by kissing Mrs. Arafat

Hillary faced a problem with Jewish voters after kissing Suha Arafat, the wife of Yasir Arafat, shortly after the first Lady of the Palestine Liberation Army charged Israelis with using poison gas on Palestinians. The first lady of the United States explained that she hadn’t understood the translation of Madam Arafat’s remarks. When the actual and quite clear translation was made public and the excuse evaporated, she retreated to a mushier explanation, and then silence.
Source: The Final Days, by Barbara Olson, p. 38 , Oct 25, 2001

Hillary Clinton on Political Hotspots

Cooperate with Russia when possible & stand up when needed

Q: What would you do about Syria's humanitarian crisis?

A: Russia hasn't paid any attention to ISIS. They're interested in keeping Assad in power. When I was secretary of state, I advocated--and I advocate today--a no-fly zone and safe zones. We need some leverage with the Russians, because they are not going to come to the negotiating table for a diplomatic resolution unless there is some leverage over them. I want to emphasize that what is at stake here is the ambitions and the aggressiveness of Russia. Russia has decided that it's all in, in Syria. They've also decided who they want to see become president of the US, too, and it's not me. I've stood up to Russia. I've taken on Putin and others, and I would do that as president. Wherever we can cooperate with Russia, that's fine. And I did as secretary of state. That's how we got a treaty reducing nuclear weapons. It's how we got the sanctions on Iran that put a lid on the Iranian nuclear program without firing a single shot.

Source: Second 2016 Presidential Debate at Washington University , Oct 9, 2016

Honor treaties with South Korea & Japan: our word is good

TRUMP: We defend Japan, we defend Germany, we defend South Korea, we defend Saudi Arabia, we defend countries. They do not pay us. But they should be paying us, because we are providing tremendous service and we're losing a fortune. We can't defend Japan, a behemoth, selling us cars by the million. They may have to defend themselves or they have to help us out.

CLINTON: Let me start by saying, words matter. Words matter when you run for president. And they really matter when you are president. And I want to reassure our allies in Japan and South Korea and elsewhere that we have mutual defense treaties and we will honor them. It is essential that America's word be good. And so I know that this campaign has caused some questioning and worries on the part of many leaders across the globe. I've talked with a number of them. But I want to--on behalf of myself, and I think on behalf of a majority of the American people, say that, you know, our word is good.

Source: First 2016 Presidential Debate at Hofstra University , Sep 26, 2016

Post-Gadhafi Libya replaced dictator with democracy

Q: You are for a regime change in Syria. But as we have learned in Libya, getting rid of longtime dictators can lead to problems?.

CLINTON: Libya is a little different [than Syria]. Libya actually held elections. They elected moderates. They have tried to piece together a government against a lot of really serious challenges internally coming from the outside with terrorist groups and other bad actors. Let's remember what was going on at the time. This was at the height of the Arab spring. The people in Libya were expressing themselves, were demanding their freedom, and Gadhafi responded brutally. Now, they had an election, and it was a fair election, it met international standards. That was an amazing accomplishment for a nation that had been so deprived for so long. This doesn't happen overnight. And, yes, it's been a couple of years. I think it's worth European support, Arab support, American support to try to help the Libyan people realize the dream that they had when they went after Gadhafi.

Source: 2016 CNN Town Hall on eve of South Carolina primary , Feb 23, 2016

Address arc of instability from North Africa to South Asia

Q: How long are US troops going to be in Afghanistan?

CLINTON: The president decided to leave more troops than he had originally planned in Afghanistan. We have a cooperative government there. The Afghan army is fighting and taking heavy losses defending Afghan territory. I would have to make an evaluation based on the circumstances at the time I took office as to how much help they continue to need. It's not just the Taliban. We are seeing, fighters claiming to be affiliated with ISIS. We've got an arc of instability from North Africa to South Asia, and we have to pay close attention to it. We have to build coalitions, something I did to take on the Iranian nuclear program, and what I will do as president.

Source: MSNBC Democratic primary debate in New Hampshire , Feb 4, 2016

Need more European contribution to defending against Russia

Q: Secretary of Defence Ash Carter said Russia is the most important national security threat. Do you agree?

CLINTON: What Secretary Carter is looking at is the constant pressure that Russia's putting on our European allies. I think what Secretary Carter is seeing is that we got to get NATO back working for the common defense. We've got to do more to support our partners in NATO, and we have to send a clear message to Putin that this kind of belligerence will have to be responded to.

Source: MSNBC Democratic primary debate in New Hampshire , Feb 4, 2016

We spend a lot on development aid, even in war zones

Gov. O'MALLEY: We are not so very good at anticipating threats and appreciating just how difficult it is to build up stable democracies, to make the investments and sustainable development that we must as a nation if we are to attack the root causes of these sorts of instability.

CLINTON: Well, I think it's perfectly fair to say that we invested quite a bit in development aid. Some of the bravest people that I had the privilege of working with as secretary of state were our development professionals who went sometimes alone, sometimes with our military, into very dangerous places in Iraq, in Afghanistan, elsewhere. So, there does need to be a whole of government approach, but just because we're involved and we have a strategy doesn't mean we're going to be able to dictate the outcome. These are often very long- term kinds of investments that have to be made.

Source: 2015 CBS Democratic primary debate in Iowa , Nov 14, 2015

2012: Take a harder line with Russia's Putin

Clinton said she urged Obama to take a tougher line with Russian President Vladimir Putin shortly before she left office in 2012: "With all this in mind, I suggested we set a new course. The reset had allowed us to pick off the low-hanging fruit in terms of bilateral cooperation. And there was no need to blow up our collaboration on Iran or Afghanistan. But we should hit the pause button on new efforts. Don't appear too eager to work together. Don't flatter Putin with high-level attention." (Page 244)
Source: Wall Street Journal on Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton , Jun 17, 2014

1998: organized women's peace conference in Northern Ireland

In 1995, Bill became the 1st US President to visit Northern Ireland when he and I traveled to Belfast, and turned on the lights of Belfast's Christmas tree in front of a vast crowd. I returned to Northern Ireland nearly every year for the rest of the decade and stayed actively involved as a Senator in the years that followed. In 1998 I helped organize the Vital Voices Conference of women in Belfast who were pressing for a peace agreement. Their whispers of "Enough!" had become a rallying cry that could no longer be ignored. As I spoke from the podium, I looked up and saw Gerry Adams, Martin McGuinness, and other leaders of Sinn Fein, the political wing of the Irish Republican Army, sitting in the front row of the balcony. Behind them I saw leading Unionists who refused to talk with Sinn Fein. The fact that they were both there--at a women's conference for peace--exemplified their openness to compromise.
Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p.224 , Jun 10, 2014

2009: Northern Ireland shows any adversaries can make good

I urged Northern Ireland's leaders to continue disarmament by paramilitary groups and take the final steps of devolution, especially on putting the vital areas of policing and justice under the control of the Northern Irish government.

Addressing a full session of the Northern Ireland Assembly, I reminded them, "There have been many moments in Northern Ireland's peace journey when progress seemed difficult, when every route forward was blocked, and there seemed to be nowhere to go. But you have always found a way to do what you believed was right for the people of Northern Ireland." Because of this perseverance, "Northern Ireland stands as an example to the world of how even the staunchest adversaries can overcome differences to work together for the common and greater good. So I encourage you to move forward now with that same spirit of unstoppable grit and resolve. And I pledge that the US will be behind you all the way, as you work toward peace and stability that lasts."

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p.225 , Jun 10, 2014

Push Russia on press freedom; they've killed 20 journalists

Among the most egregious developments in the new Russia were the attacks on the press. Newspapers, TV stations, and bloggers faced intense pressure to toe the Kremlin line. Since 2000, Russia has been the 4th most dangerous place in the world to be a journalist--not as bad as Iraq but worse than Somalia or Pakistan. Between 2000 and 2009 nearly 20 journalists were killed in Russia, and in only one case was the killer convicted.

When I visited Moscow in 2009, I thought it important to speak out in support of press freedoms and against the official campaign of intimidation. I met with journalists, lawyers, and other civil society leaders, including one activist who told me that he had been badly beaten by unidentified thugs. These Russians had seen friends and colleagues harassed, intimidated, even killed, yet they went on working, writing, and speaking, refusing to be silenced. I assured them that the US would publicly and privately raise human rights concerns with the Russian government.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p.229 , Jun 10, 2014

Putin's annexing Crimea plays outdated zero-sum game

Putin's worldview is shaped by Russia's long-standing interest in controlling the nations on its borders, and his personal determination that his country never again appear weak or at the mercy of the West, as he believes it was after the collapse of the Soviet Union. To achieve these goals, he seeks to reduce the influence of the US in areas that he considers part of Russia's sphere. All of that helps explain why Putin first pressured Ukraine to walk away from closer ties with the European Union in late 2013, and why Putin invaded and annexed Crimea.

Putin sees geopolitics as a zero-sum game in which, if someone is winning, then someone else has to be losing. That's an outdated but still dangerous concept, one that requires the US to show both strength and patience. To manage our relationship with the Russians, we should work with them on specific issues when possible, and rally other nations to work with us to prevent or limit their negative behavior when needed.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, p.227-8 , Jun 10, 2014

Russian reset: Pushed Obama to keep Putin at a distance

Clinton writes about the memo she sent Obama in her final days at State on how to handle Russia going forward. "The reset had allowed us to pick off the low-hanging fruit in terms of bilateral cooperation. And there was no need to blow up our collaboration on Iran or Afghanistan. But we should hit the pause button on new efforts. Don't appear too eager to work together. Don't flatter [Russian president Vladimir] Putin with high-level attention. Decline his invitation for a presidential-level summit in Moscow in September."

This was months before Obama ultimately turned away from meeting with Putin, as Russia harbored NSA leaker Snowden. But by including this memo, she reminds readers that Clinton--who became the face of the Russian reset as the top spokesperson for the Obama administration--was more hawkish on Putin than others in the administration.

It's helpful to her at a time when Republicans have been lambasting her over Russian's aggression against Ukraine.

Source: Politico.com on Hard Choices by Hillary Clinton , Jun 7, 2014

Eastern Europe in NATO keeps Putin from moving beyond Crimea

In the wake of Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea in early 2014, some have argued that NATO expansion either caused or exacerbated Russia's aggression. I disagree with that argument, but the most convincing voices refuting it are those European leaders and people who express their gratitude for NATO membership.

[Those making that argument] should ponder how much more serious the crisis would be--and how much more difficult it would be--to contain further Russian aggression if Eastern and Central European nations were not now NATO allies. The NATO door should remain open, and we should be clear and tough-minded in dealing with Russia.

If Putin is restrained and doesn't push beyond Crimea into eastern Ukraine it will not be because he has lost his appetite for more power, territory and influence.

Source: Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, CBS pre-release excerpts , Jun 6, 2014

2007: Naive to meet with leaders of Iran & North Korea

In a June 2007 debate in South Carolina she again drew a sharp contrast with Obama when he unexpectedly pledged that, as president, he would willingly meet with the leaders of such rogue nations as Iran and North Korea without preconditions during his first term in office. "Well, I will not promise to meet with the leasers of these countries during my first year." Clinton interjected. "I will promise a very vigorous diplomatic effort because I think it is not that you promise a meeting at that high a level before you know what the intentions are. I don't want to be used for propaganda purposes. I don't want to make a situation even worse."

This looked like another Obama gaffe. The following day, her campaign recruited former secretary of state Madeleine Albright to lead the attack against Obama. During a telephone interview, she launched a personal attack on Obama, [saying], "I thought he was irresponsible and frankly naive."

Source: The Battle for America 2008, by Balz & Johnson, p. 83-84 , Aug 4, 2009

Committed to maintaining economic embargo against Cuba

President-elect Obama, on Dec. 1, introduced his National Security and Foreign Policy teams, stating: "I have known Hillary Clinton as a friend," he says. I am mindful of the fact that she was President-elect Obama's rival and the wife of President Clinton, who signed the extraterritorial Torricelli and Helms Burton Acts against Cuba. During the presidential race she committed herself to these laws and to the economic blockade. I am not complaining, I am simply stating this for the record.
Source: Obama and the Empire, by Fidel Castro, p. 13 , Dec 4, 2008

Diplomacy with Iran & Cuba, but no presidential meetings

Q: [to Obama]: Do you support normalizing relations with Cuba now?

OBAMA: I would not normalize relations until we started seeing some progress [on the US agenda in Cuba]. But I do think that it’s important for the US not just to talk to its friends, but also to talk to its enemies.

CLINTON: I agree that we should be willing to have diplomatic negotiations and processes with anyone. I’ve been a strong advocate of opening up such a diplomatic process with Iran, for a number of years. Because I think we should look for ways that we can possibly move countries that are adversarial to us, toward the world community. It’s in our interests and in the interests of the people in countries that are oppressed, like Cuba, like Iran. But there has been this difference between us over when and whether the president should offer a meeting, without preconditions, with those with whom we do not have diplomatic relations. And it should be part of a process, but I don’t think it should be offered in the beginning

Source: 2008 Democratic debate at University of Texas in Austin , Feb 21, 2008

Hillary Clinton on Voting Record

Would use very vigorous and bipartisan diplomacy

Kennedy said he wouldn’t be afraid to negotiate, but he would expect there to be a lot of preparatory work done, to find out exactly what we would get out of it. Therefore, we should be eliminating the policy of the Bush administration, which has been very narrowly defined, and frankly against our interests, because we have failed to reach out to countries, we have alienated our friends, & we have emboldened our enemies. I would get back to very vigorous diplomacy, and I would use bipartisan diplomacy
Source: 2008 Democratic debate at University of Texas in Austin , Feb 21, 2008

Dems believe in fighting terror with cooperation

We believe in fighting terror and other threats to our security by cooperating with others whenever we can and acting alone only when we are forced to. Republicans believe just the reverse -- in acting alone whenever they can, and cooperating only when there is no alternative. So for five and a half years, they have controlled the White House and the Congress, and they have succeeded in concentrating wealth and power, in resisting accountability, in ignoring evidence, and going it alone in the world.
Source: Annual 2006 Take Back America Conference , Jun 14, 2006

Voted YES on cooperating with India as a nuclear power.

Congressional Summary:US-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act:

Proponent's argument to vote Yes:Rep. HOWARD BERMAN (D, CA-28): Integrating India into a global nonproliferation regime is a positive step. Before anyone gets too sanctimonious about India's nuclear weapons program, we should acknowledge that the five recognized nuclear weapons states have not done nearly enough to fulfill their commitments under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, including making serious reductions in their own arsenals, nor in the case of the US in ratifying the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Opponent's argument to vote No:Rep. BARBARA LEE (D, CA-9): In withholding my approval, I seek not to penalize the people of India but, rather, to affirm the principle of nuclear nonproliferation. Jettisoning adherence to the international nuclear nonproliferation framework that has served the world so well for more than 30 years, as approval of the agreement before us would do, is just simply unwise. It is also reckless.

Approval of this agreement undermines our efforts to dissuade countries like Iran and North Korea from developing nuclear weapons. By approving this agreement, all we are doing is creating incentives for other countries to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

Reference: US-India Nuclear Agreement; Bill HR.7081 ; vote number 2008-S211 on Oct 1, 2008

Voted YES on enlarging NATO to include Eastern Europe.

H.R. 3167; Gerald B. H. Solomon Freedom Consolidation Act of 2001, To endorse the vision of further enlargement of the NATO Alliance. Vote to pass a bill that would support further expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, authorize military assistance to several eastern European countries and lift assistance restrictions on Slovakia.
Reference: Bill HR.3167 ; vote number 2002-116 on May 17, 2002

Progressive Internationalism: globalize with US pre-eminence.

Clinton adopted the manifesto, "A New Agenda for the New Decade":

Build a Public Consensus Supporting US Global Leadership
The internationalist outlook that served America and the world so well during the second half of the 20th century is under attack from both ends of the political spectrum. As the left has gravitated toward protectionism, many on the right have reverted to “America First” isolationism.

Our leaders should articulate a progressive internationalism based on the new realities of the Information Age: globalization, democracy, American pre-eminence, and the rise of a new array of threats ranging from regional and ethnic conflicts to the spread of missiles and biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. This approach recognizes the need to revamp, while continuing to rely on, multilateral alliances that advance U.S. values and interests.

A strong, technologically superior defense is the foundation for US global leadership. Yet the US continues to employ defense strategies, military missions, and force structures left over from the Cold War, creating a defense establishment that is ill-prepared to meet new threats to our security. The US must speed up the “revolution in military affairs” that uses our technological advantage to project force in many different contingencies involving uncertain and rapidly changing security threats -- including terrorism and information warfare.

Source: The Hyde Park Declaration 00-DLC12 on Aug 1, 2000

Increase aid to avert humanitarian crisis in Congo.

Clinton co-sponsored increasing aid to avert humanitarian crisis in Congo


SPONSOR'S INTRODUCTORY REMARKS: Sen. OBAMA: There is a country embroiled in conflict that has not yet received the high-level attention or resources it needs. It's the Democratic Republic of Congo, and right now it is in the midst of a humanitarian catastrophe.

31,000 people are dying in the Congo each month and 3.8 million people have died in the previous 6 years. The country, which is the size of Western Europe, lies at the geographic heart of Africa and borders every major region across the continent. If left untended, Congo's tragedy will continue to infect Africa.

I believe that the United States can make a profound difference in this crisis. According to international aid agencies, there are innumerable cost-effective interventions that could be quickly undertaken--such as the provision of basic medical care, immunization and clean water--that could save thousands of lives. On the political front, sustained U.S. leadership could fill a perilous vacuum.


LEGISLATIVE OUTCOME:Became Public Law No. 109-456

Source: Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act (S.2125) 05-S2125 on Dec 16, 2005

Implement Darfur Peace Agreement with UN peacekeeping force.

Clinton co-sponsored implementing Darfur Peace Agreement with UN peacekeeping force

Source: S.RES.455 08-SR455 on Feb 14, 2008

Acknowledge the Armenian Genocide of the early 1900s.

Clinton co-sponsored acknowledging the Armenian Genocide of the early 1900s

Sen. DURBIN: The definition of "genocide" is "the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group." Scholars agree that what the Armenian people suffered in 1915 to 1917 fits the definition of genocide. To date, 19 countries and 37 US states recognize the Armenian Genocide. Genocide is wrong. It is evil. It is evil whether its victims are Armenians, Sudanese, Rwandan Tutsis, Cambodians or European Jews. Not to acknowledge genocide for what it is denigrates the memory of its victims. Recognition of genocide is part of the healing process. Official recognition will reaffirm our tradition of protecting the vulnerable and inspire us to not stand by and watch as genocide occurs in our time.
Source: Armenian Genocide Resolution (S.RES.106/H.RES.106) 2007-SR106 on Mar 14, 2007

Urge Venezuela to re-open dissident radio & TV stations.

Clinton co-sponsored urging Venezuela to re-open dissident radio & TV stations

Source: Radio Caracas Resolution (S.RES.211) 2007-SR211 on May 21, 2007

Call for Burma's junta to release political prisoners.

Clinton co-sponsored calling for Burma's junta to release political prisoners

Source: Aung San Suu Kyi Resolution (S.RES.250) 2007-SR250 on Jun 22, 2007

Develop a strategy to protect civilians in Darfur.

Clinton co-sponsored developing a strategy to protect civilians in Darfur

A resolution calling on the United States Government and the international community to promptly develop, fund, and implement a comprehensive regional strategy in Africa to protect civilians, facilitate humanitarian operations, contain and reduce violence, and contribute to conditions for sustainable peace in eastern Chad, northern Central African Republic, and Darfur, Sudan.

Source: Darfur Resolution (S.RES.76) 2007-SR76 on Feb 8, 2007

Let Ukraine & Georgia enter NATO.

Clinton co-sponsored including Ukraine & Georgia in NATO

Congressional Summary: A resolution expressing strong support for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to enter into a Membership Action Plan with Georgia and Ukraine:

  1. reaffirming support for enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to include democratic governments that are able to meet the membership responsibilities;
  2. that NATO's expansion contributes to its relevance;
  3. that Georgia and Ukraine are strong allies that have made important progress in the areas of defense and democratic and human rights reform;
  4. that a stronger relationship among Georgia, Ukraine, and NATO will benefit those countries and NATO member states; and
  5. that the United States should take the lead in supporting the awarding of a Membership Action Plan to Georgia and Ukraine.

Legislative Outome: Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent.

Source: S.RES.439 & H.RES.997 2008-SR439 on Jan 31, 2008

Condemn violence by Chinese government in Tibet.

Clinton co-sponsored condemning the violence by Chinese government in Tibet

A resolution condemning the violence in Tibet and calling for restraint by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the people of Tibet. Calls for:

  1. a dialogue between the government of China and His Holiness the Dalai Lama on religious and cultural autonomy for Tibet within China; and
  2. release of peaceful protesters.
    Calls on the PRC to:
  1. respect the right of the people of Tibet to speak of the Dalai Lama and possess his photograph;
  2. respect basic human rights;
  3. allow international journalists free access to China; and
  4. provide a full accounting of the March 2008 protests in Tibet.
Urges that the agreement permitting the PRC to open further diplomatic missions in the United States should be contingent upon establishment of a U.S. government office in Lhasa, Tibet.
Source: S.RES.504 2008-SR504 on Apr 7, 2008

Sanction Mugabe until Zimbabwe transitions to democracy.

Clinton co-sponsored sanctioning Mugabe until Zimbabwe transitions to democracy

A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the political situation in Zimbabwe. Expresses the sense of the Senate:

  1. supporting the people of Zimbabwe;
  2. that the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission should immediately release the legitimate results of the presidential election and ratify the previously announced results of the parliamentary elections;
  3. that President Robert Mugabe should accept the will of the people of Zimbabwe in order to effect a timely and peaceful transition to democratic rule;
  4. that the U.S. government and the international community should impose targeted sanctions against individuals in the government of Zimbabwe and state security services and militias who are responsible for human rights abuses and election interference;
  5. that the U.S. government and the international community should work together to prepare an economic and political recovery package for Zimbabwe;
  6. that regional organizations should play an active role in resolving the crisis; and
  7. that the U.N. Security Council should support efforts to bring about a peaceful resolution of the crisis and impose an international arms embargo on Zimbabwe until a legitimate democratic government has taken power.
Source: S.RES.533&H.RES.1230 2008-SR533 on Apr 24, 2008

Pressure friendly Arab states to end Israeli boycott.

Clinton signed Schumer-Graham letter to Secy. Rice from 79 Congress members

    Dear Secretary Rice,
    In the past, the lack of sufficient support from [non-participating] Arab states have made it difficult to reach agreements [on the Arab-Israeli conflict]. You should press friendly Arab countries that have not yet done so, to:
  1. Participate in the upcoming international meeting and be a full partner of the US in advancing regional peace
  2. Take visible, meaningful steps in the financial, diplomatic and political arena to help Palestinian President Abbas govern effectively and meet obligations to fight terror
  3. Stop support for terrorist groups and cease all anti-Israel and anti-Jewish incitement
  4. Recognize Israel's right to exist and not use such recognition as a bargaining chip for future Israeli concessions
  5. End the Arab League economic boycott of Israel in all of its forms
  6. Pressure Hamas to recognize Israel, reject terror, and accept prior agreements, and isolate Hamas until it takes such steps.
Source: Schumer-Graham letter to Secy. Rice from 79 Congress members 2010-LT-AR on Oct 2, 2007

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