Joe Biden on Immigration

Former Vice President; previously Democratic Senator (DE)


Refugee cap up from 15,000 to 62,500, but promised 125,000

PROMISE MADE: (JoeBiden.com website, 6/20/20): As President, I will increase the number of refugees we welcome into this country, setting an annual global refugee target of 125,000--up from a ceiling of 18,000 under Trump--and will seek to further raise it over time. I will support efforts to work with Congress in a bipartisan fashion to protect our refugee policy from drastic and arbitrary reductions we have seen during the Trump Administration.

PROMISE PARTLY KEPT: (WhiteHouse.gov, 5/3/21): I am revising the annual refugee admissions cap to 62,500. This erases the historically low number set by the previous administration of 15,000, which did not reflect America's values as a nation that welcomes and supports refugees. The new admissions cap will also reinforce efforts that are already underway to expand the United States' capacity to admit refugees, so that we can reach the goal of 125,000 refugee admissions that I intend to set for the coming fiscal year.

Source: Campaign website versus Biden Administration promises , May 3, 2021

Promised 125,000 refugees; but accepted fewer than Trump

PROMISE MADE: (Remarks by Pres. Biden on America's place in the world, 2/4/21): This executive order will position us to be able to raise the refugee admissions back up to 125,000 persons for the first full fiscal year of the Biden-Harris administration.

PROMISE CONFIRMED: (Proposed Emergency Presidential Determination on Refugee Admissions, 2/12/21): This report proposes providing allocations by region, with a new FY 2021 admissions number of 62,500 refugees.

PROMISE BROKEN: (NBC News, 4/16/21): Biden will not increase the number of refugees allowed to enter the U.S. this year. Biden notified Congress in February that he would increase the number of refugees allowed to enter the country from 15,000 to 62,500. But he never signed the presidential determination that would actually raise the cap. Analysis: Biden is on track to accept the fewest refugees this year of any modern president, including Trump.

Source: NPR on Biden Administration promises , Apr 22, 2021

Restore refugee admissions program: 125,000 people this year

We face a crisis of more than 80 million displaced people suffering all around the world. The United States' moral leadership on refugee issues was a point of bipartisan consensus for so many decades when I first got here. We shined the light of liberty on oppressed people. We offered safe havens for those fleeing violence or persecution. And our example pushed other nations to open wide their doors as well.

So today, I'm approving an executive order to begin the hard work of restoring our refugee admissions program to help meet the unprecedented global need. It's going to take time to rebuild what has been so badly damaged, but that's precisely what we're going to do.

This executive order will position us to be able to raise the refugee admissions back up to 125,000 persons for the first full fiscal year of the Biden-Harris administration. And I'm directing the State Department to consult with Congress about making a down payment on that commitment as soon as possible.

Source: Remarks by Pres. Biden on "America's Place in the World" , Feb 4, 2021

Revoke Trump's ban on refugees seeking asylum

PROMISE MADE: (Miami Herald OpEd, 6/24/19): Our asylum system needs to be improved--strengthen it so that it benefits legitimate claims of those fleeing persecution, while reducing potential for abuse.

PROMISE PARTLY KEPT: (Executive Order Feb. 4, 2021): Sec. 2. Revocation, Rescission, and Reporting. (a) Executive Order 13815 of October 24, 2017 (Resuming the United States Refugee Admissions Program With Enhanced Vetting Capabilities), and Executive Order 13888 of September 26, 2019 (Enhancing State and Local Involvement in Refugee Resettlement), are revoked.

OnTheIssues ANALYSIS: Biden undid Trump's cancellation of refugee admissions. That DOES "improve" the asylum system, compared to what Trump did, but Biden's bigger promise is to improve the asylum system compared to what Obama did before Trump--that improvement is yet to be seen.

Source: White House press release on Biden Promises , Feb 4, 2021

I'll send bill in first 100 days for pathway to citizenship

Q: The Obama Administration did fail to deliver immigration reform, which had been a key promise. It also presided over record deportations, as well as family detentions at the border before changing course. So why should voters trust you with an immigration overhaul now?

BIDEN: Because we made a mistake. It took too long to get it right. I'll be President, not Vice President. And the fact is I've made it very clear. Within a 100 days, I'm going to send to the United States Congress a pathway to citizenship for over 11 million undocumented people. And all of those so-called DREAMers, those DACA kids, they're going to be immediately certified again to be able to stay in this country and put on a path to citizenship.

TRUMP: He had 8 years to do what he said he was going to do. And I've changed. Without having a specific, we got rid of catch and release. We got rid of a lot of horrible things that they put in and that they lived with. But he had eight years he was Vice President.

Source: Third 2020 Presidential Debate, moderated by Kristen Welker , Oct 22, 2020

Make DACA permanent; much work remains to be done

The Supreme Court blocked the Trump administration's attempt to end Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, an Obama-era program that protects immigrants brought to the US as children from deportation..After Trump came into office, the administration announced the program had been created "without proper authority" & that DACA would be phased out, pointing out that it had "legal and constitutional defects.

Federal courts said the administration had acted arbitrarily when phasing out the program. The courts pointed to the administration's thin justification--reasoning Roberts and the Supreme Court eventually agreed with.

Presumptive Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden also celebrated the ruling, calling it a "victory" and again saying that if elected, he will work "immediately" on legislation that would make the program permanent. "The joy of today's victory does not erase the difficult road ahead," Biden said in a statement. "We know that much work remains to be done."

Source: CNN on Trump Cabinet / 2020 SCOTUS rulings , Jun 18, 2020

Xenophobia is a disease; invest in Latinos' future

Q: What about treating infected illegal immigrants?

BIDEN: Anyone who shows up to be tested for Coronavirus, or gets Coronavirus treated, would be held harmless. There are certain things you cannot deport an undocumented person for and that would be one of them. We want that. It's in the interests of everyone. And those folks who are the xenophobic folks out there, it's even in their interest that that [infected person] come forward, because it keeps the spread from moving more rapidly.

Q: What about closing the Mexican border during the pandemic?

BIDEN: Our future rests upon the Latino community being fully integrated. If we do not invest in their future, everything that the xenophobes are concerned about will in fact get worse, not better. We should be embracing, bringing them in, just like what happened with the Irish immigrants after the famine, just what happened with the Italians, et cetera. We've been through this before, xenophobia is a disease.

Source: 11th Democratic primary debate (Biden-Sanders one-on-one) , Mar 15, 2020

No deportations unless aliens committed a felony in the US

Q: You recently said for the first time that the Obama-Biden administration made a big mistake in deporting millions of immigrants, but you didn't publicly speak out against it at the time. So you won't deport millions again?

Joe Biden: I said that it took much too long to get it right and the President did get it right, by DACA, making sure that it tried to protect parents as well. I will send to the [Congress] immediately a bill that requires access to citizenship for 11 million undocumented folks, number one. Number two, the first hundred days of my administration, no one, no one will be deported at all. From that point on, the only deportations that will take place are commissions of felonies in the US.

Q: So to be clear, only felons get deported and everyone else gets-

Joe Biden: Period.

Q: They get to stay?

Yes, it's about uniting families. It's about making sure that we can both be a nation of immigrants, as well as a nation that is decent.

Source: 11th Democratic primary debate (Biden-Sanders one-on-one) , Mar 15, 2020

First thing I'll do is send Congress an immigration bill

The first thing I'm going to do, literally I have already had one written, on day one, I'm sending to Congress an immigration bill providing a pathway for 11 million undocumented. I'm going to make sure every Dreamer is protected now. It makes us economically stronger, too. It benefits everybody. I find when I talk to people who think they're anti-immigrant, I say, let's get the facts here. The reason Social Security is still working and it's being funded is because of immigrants.
Source: CNN Town Hall 2020 with Anderson Cooper , Feb 20, 2020

No one would be deported who hasn't committed a felony

Biden suggested that he opposed Barack Obama's deportation policy, but didn't speak out because he was vice president. "The president did the best thing that was able to be done at the time," he said at the September debate. "I stand with Barack Obama all eight years--good, bad and indifferent." Biden said that deportations would be limited if he were elected. "No one would be deported in my administration who hasn't committed a felony," he said.
Source: The Guardian on 2020 Presidential Hopefuls , Jan 11, 2020

Yes, we did deportations, but we also did DACA & asylum

Q: The Obama administration deported 3 million people. Did you do anything to prevent those deportations?

BIDEN: What Latinos should look at is comparing [Obama policy to Trump policy]. We didn't lock people up in cages. We didn't separate families. [Obama] came along with the DACA program. No one had ever done that before. [Obama] wanted to find a pathway for the 11 million undocumented. This is a president who's done a great deal. So I'm proud to have served with him.

What I would do as president is several more things, because things have changed. I would, in fact, make sure that there is-we immediately surge to the border. All those people who are seeking asylum, they deserve to be heard. That's who we are. We're a nation who says, if you want to flee, and you're freeing oppression, you should come.

I would change the order that the president just changed, saying women who were being beaten and abused could no longer claim that as a reason for asylum.

Source: September Democratic Primary debate in Houston , Sep 12, 2019

We are strong & great BECAUSE of diversity, not despite it

I'm running for president to restore the soul of this country. You know, we have a president, as everybody has acknowledged here, every day is ripping at the social fabric of this country, but no one man has the capacity to rip that apart. It's too strong. We're too good.

Just look at this stage, made up of very diverse people from diverse backgrounds, went on to be mayors, senators, governors, congresswomen, members of the cabinet, and, yes, even a vice president.

Mr. President, this is America. And we are stronger and great because of this diversity, Mr. President, not in spite of it, Mr. President.

So, Mr. President, let's get something straight: We love it. We are not leaving it. We are here to stay. And we're certainly not going to leave it to you.

Source: July Democratic Primary debate (second night in Detroit) , Jul 31, 2019

We've been able to cherry pick the best of every culture

This country can tolerate a heck of a lot more people. And the reason we're the country we are is we've been able to cherry pick from the best of every culture. Immigrants built this country. That's why we're so special. It took courage. It took resilience. It took, absolutely, confidence for them to come. And we should be encouraging these people. And by the way, anybody that crosses the [border] with a PhD, you should get a green card for seven years. We should keep them here.
Source: July Democratic Primary debate (second night in Detroit) , Jul 31, 2019

2007: We need a fair and workable immigration system

On immigration, Biden stated, "We need a fair and workable system that gives hardworking people a way to come here legally and pursue their dreams." His three top priorities regarding immigration were to increase border security; give immigrants the opportunity to gain citizenship legally; and to strictly deal with individuals who hire immigrants illegally.
Source: The Democrats, by Alexander Moore, p. 29 , Jul 9, 2019

Allow citizenship for DREAMers

[Visiting the University of Pennsylvania], "The majority of people think there's plenty of room to integrate these Dreamers into society," Biden said. "The vast majority of these kids, and now grown-ups, have been honorable citizens, have done well in our education system, done well in our society, and have already become more American than many Americans by adopting the basic fundamental truths that we believe are the essence of what America is."
Source: The Daily Pennsylvanian on 2020 presidential hopefuls , Feb 19, 2019

FactCheck: 67% of illegal aliens speak Spanish; not 40%

Biden's discussion of his search for a nanny years ago led him into trouble. Biden said, "Most of the illegals that came to seek a job with me, they did not speak Spanish. They were from Ireland, England. They were from Germany. They were from Poland. The majority of the people here undocumented--60%--are not Spanish speaking." Chris Dodd jumped in and confirmed that most illegals are, in fact, Spanish speakers. Biden wisely deferred to Dodd.

In fact, Mexico was the country of birth of 57% of the estimated 11.55 million unauthorized immigrants in 2006. Add in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras--all Spanish-speaking countries--and it jumps to 67%. You'd have to go back many decades to get to a time when the majority of undocumented immigrants were Britons, Germans, Irish and Poles.

Source: FactCheck on 2007 Democratic radio debate on NPR , Dec 4, 2007

H1-B visas only for jobs Americans can't do

Q: What would you do as president: Expand H1-B visas or scale them back?

A: I have been working with this for a long time, as former chairman of the Judiciary Committee. That's where it comes out of. We have it about right now, except that the employers aren't doing their part. They've got to offer the job. If there's an American there who will take the job, they can't undercut it by hiring an Indian engineer who will work for less; that's illegal. We're not enforcing it.

Source: 2007 Democratic radio debate on NPR , Dec 4, 2007

Americans will do any job if you pay them properly

Q: Do you believe in this debate over immigration that we're talking about jobs that Americans won't do?

A: Let's get it straight. Americans will do any job if you pay them properly. That doesn't mean we don't need guest workers; we do. But we should base the number of guest workers upon need--not an absolute number. And we should require employers to offer those jobs to citizens to see if they want those jobs. We need agricultural workers; we need H1B visas; we need what in fact exists as a need, not as an artificial number to allow employers to drive down wages.

Q: Does hiring illegal immigrants to do these jobs drive down wages?

A: [Yes, it] drives down wages. But there are a lot of people who will go out and hang drywall and get a decent wage. There are not a lot of people who are going out and do the agricultural work that's seasonal. So it should be based on need.

Source: 2007 Iowa Brown & Black Presidential Forum , Dec 1, 2007

Oppose granting driver's licenses to illegal immigrants

Q: In the absence of comprehensive immigration reform, do you support driver's licenses for illegal immigrants?

A: No.

Source: 2007 Democratic debate in Las Vegas, Nevada , Nov 15, 2007

Supported Bush plan: both border fence & path to citizenship

Biden supports the Bush immigration plan, with both its "amnesty" for existing undocumented residents and its big border fence to keep new ones out.
Source: The Contenders, by Laura Flanders, p.180 , Nov 11, 2007

Sanctuary cities exist because feds can't enforce their laws

Q: Would you allow "sanctuary cities" to ignore the federal law and provide sanctuary to these immigrants?

A: The reason that cities ignore the federal law is the fact that there is no funding at the federal level to provide for the kind of enforcement at the federal level you need. This administration's been fundamentally derelict in not funding any of the requirements that are needed even to enforce the existing law.

Q: So would you allow those cities to ignore the federal law?

A: No.

Source: 2007 Democratic primary debate at Dartmouth College , Sep 6, 2007

It's impractical to deport 14 million illegal immigrants

There doesn't need to be a 700-mile fence, 14 million illegals -- now you tell me how many buses, car loads, planes that are going to go out, round up all these people, spend hundreds of millions of billions of dollars for the whole world watching, while we send these folks back. Rather than get a background check on all of them, take out the criminals, get them back, and provide for a means by which we allow earned citizenship over the next decade or so.
Source: 2007 Dem. debate at Saint Anselm College , Jun 3, 2007

Joe Biden on Southern Border

Promised "not another foot of wall"; but added Southern wall

PROMISE MADE: (CNBC, 10/5/23): During his 2020 Democratic campaign, Biden had promised that not "another foot of wall" would be built during his administration. Once in office in January 2021, Biden issued a proclamation to end construction of the wall, which had been a top priority as part of President Trump's effort to block illegal entries into the US. Biden said at that time that "building a massive wall that spans the entire southern border is not a serious policy solution."

PROMISE BROKEN: (Reuters, 10/6/23): Biden's administration said it will add sections to a border wall to stave off record migrant crossings from Mexico. Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas said the construction project was appropriated during the prior administration and the law requires the government to use the funds. "We have repeatedly asked Congress to rescind this money but it has not done so and we are compelled to follow the law," he said.

Source: CNBC and Reuters analysis of Biden Promises , Oct 6, 2023

Let Title 42 expire: more humanitarian asylum policy

Biden has sought to establish a more humanitarian-focused approach to immigration than his predecessors. He supported letting Title 42, a pandemic-era immigration policy that allows the U.S. to return migrants to their home countries without the former asylum process, expire.

In January, Biden announced several new immigration policies, including an increase of the use of expedited removal, the tripling of refugee resettlement from the Western Hemisphere, increasing humanitarian assistance in Mexico and Central America, and a surge in resources to the U.S.-Mexico border.

He has also introduced a policy crackdown last month that could disqualify a vast majority of migrants from being able to seek asylum at the southern border, sparking criticism from some progressives.

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. has recently knocked Biden's immigration policies: "It's not racist or insensitive to say that we need to close our borders and have an orderly immigration policy," he said.

Source: Newsweek magazine on 2023 Presidential hopefuls , May 15, 2023

Task Force on Reunification of Families at Mexican border

PROMISE MADE: (Miami Primary debate, 6/27/19): "The first thing I would do is unite families. I'd surge immediately billions of dollars' worth of help to the region immediately. Second thing, the law now requires the reuniting of those families. We would reunite those families, period."

PROMISE KEPT:(Executive Order on Reunification, Feb. 2, 2021): There is hereby established an Interagency Task Force on the Reunification of Families. The Task Force shall identify all children who were separated from their families at the US-Mexico border in connection with the operation of the Zero-Tolerance Policy [and] facilitate and enable the reunification of each of the identified children with their families.

OnTheIssues ANALYSIS: Establishing a Task Force is a good start--as well as overturning Trump's controversial policy of family separation at the southern border. But actual reunification will take years (and the promised billions).

Source: White House press release on Biden Promises , Feb 2, 2021

Focus on causes of migration within Northern Triangle

PROMISE MADE: (Biden OpEd in Washington Post, 6/25/18): The Northern Triangle represents the overwhelming source of migrants crossing our southern border. Unless we address the root causes driving migration from this region, any solutions focused solely on border protection and enforcement will be insufficient.

PROMISE KEPT:(Executive Order on Causes of Migration, 2/2/21): We will work closely with international organizations and governments in the region to: establish a comprehensive strategy for addressing the causes of migration; build, strengthen, and expand Central American countries' asylum systems and resettlement capacity; and increase opportunities for vulnerable populations to apply for protection closer to home.

OnTheIssues ANALYSIS: Biden's order includes the Northern Triangle and "causes of migration"--contrasting Trump's focus on border enforcement, which included the "Remain-in-Mexico policy" for Northern Triangle asylum seekers.

Source: White House press release on Biden Promises , Feb 2, 2021

Separating kids from parents in border cages is criminal

Q: The US can't locate the parents of more than 500 children separated at the border. Do you have a plan to reunite the kids with their families?

TRUMP: We're working on it. But a lot of these kids come out without the parents. Children are brought here by coyotes. They are so well taken care of. They're in facilities that were so clean.

Q: But some of them haven't been reunited with their families.

TRUMP: But just ask one question. Who built the cages?

BIDEN: These 500-plus kids came with parents. They separated them at the border to make it a disincentive to come to begin with. Coyotes didn't bring them over. Their parents were with them. They got separated from their parents. And it makes us a laughingstock and violates every notion of who we are as a nation.

TRUMP: We changed the policy. Who built the cages, Joe?

BIDEN: Their kids were ripped from their arms and separated, and now they cannot find over 500 of the sets of those parents, and those kids are alone. It's criminal.

Source: Third 2020 Presidential Debate, moderated by Kristen Welker , Oct 22, 2020

Problem is Trump, not criminalizing illegal border crossings

Julian Castro: What we need are politicians that actually have some guts on this issue.

Biden: I have guts enough to say his plan [to decriminalize the border] doesn't make sense. When people cross the border illegally, it is illegal to do it unless they're seeking asylum. People should have to get in line. That's the problem. And the only reason this particular part of the law is being abused is because of Donald Trump. We should defeat Donald Trump and end this practice.

Source: July Democratic Primary debate (second night in Detroit) , Jul 31, 2019

Seeking asylum isn't an illegal border crossing; assist them

Q: In the first two years of the Obama administration, nearly 800,000 immigrants were deported, far more than during President Trump's first two years. Would the higher deportation rates resume if you were president?

Biden: Absolutely not. Seeking asylum is not crossing the border illegally. What we should do is flood the zone [with extra staff to deal with the large number of border crossers] to make sure we have people to make those decisions quickly.

Source: July Democratic Primary debate (second night in Detroit) , Jul 31, 2019

Reunite families; end outrageous treatment

Q: Raise your hand if you think it should be a civil offense rather than a crime to cross the border without documentation?

[8 out of 10 participants raised their hands].

BIDEN: The first thing I would do is unite families. I'd surge immediately billions of dollars' worth of help to the region immediately. Second thing, the law now requires the reuniting of those families. We would reunite those families, period. And lastly, saying children in cages do not need a bed, do not need a blanket, do not need a toothbrush, that is outrageous.

Q: If an individual is living in the US without documents, and that is his only offense, should that person be deported?

BIDEN: If they committed a major crime, they should be deported. But we should not be locking people up. We should be making sure we change the circumstance, why they would leave in the first place. Those who come seeking asylum, we should immediately have the capacity to absorb them, keep them safe until they can be heard.

Source: June Democratic Primary debate (second night in Miami) , Jun 27, 2019

Bring in asylum seekers & DREAMers AND secure border

The next president must institute effective immigration reform. That starts by recognizing that DREAMers are Americans, and Congress needs to make it official. Our asylum system needs to be improved--strengthen it so that it benefits legitimate claims of those fleeing persecution, while reducing potential for abuse. And it's imperative that we secure our borders. Focus on improving screening procedures at our legal ports of entry and making smart investments in border technology.
Source: Miami Herald OpEd by 2020 presidential hopefuls , Jun 24, 2019

Focus on refugee asylum seekers at home in Northern Triangle

When President Trump signed an executive order ending the separation of children from their families at the border, it did not end the crisis in Central America. Nor should it relieve our moral anguish at seeing the poorest and most vulnerable treated in ways that are fundamentally at odds with our nation's values.

The moment also calls for a renewed focus on the so-called Northern Triangle of Central America--the countries of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, which together represent the overwhelming source of migrants crossing our southern border. Unless we address the root causes driving migration from this region, any solutions focused solely on border protection and enforcement will be insufficient.

In 2014, [Pres. Obama and I saw that] migration from Central America could not be resolved merely by stronger enforcement at the US border, let alone by building a wall. Instead, we needed to tackle the drivers of migration: crime, violence, corruption and lack of opportunity.

Source: Joe Biden OpEd in Washington Post (2020 Democratic primary) , Jun 25, 2018

Voted for border fence, but to tackle drug trafficking

I voted for the [Mexican border] fence was that was the only alternative that was there, and I voted for the fence related to drugs. You can -- a fence will stop 20 kilos of cocaine coming through that fence. It will not stop someone climbing over it or around it. But this bill has a much more reasonable provision in it. It has much shorter fence, it does have the Border Patrol requirement, and it is designed not just to deal with illegals; it's designed -- a serious drug trafficking problem we have.
Source: 2007 Dem. debate at Saint Anselm College , Jun 3, 2007

Joe Biden on Voting Record

2007: Immigration reform failed because McCain absent

In May 2007, McCain had been largely AWOL from the immigration negotiations all year, after previously serving as the deal's lead Republican champion. (As the Washington Post reported the following week, McCain had missed half that year's Senate votes, including all 45 votes since April 15.") A couple months earlier, Sen. Joseph Biden, D-Del., a friend of McCain's, said that he thought immigration reform was doomed for the year precisely because of McCain's missing leadership. For the Arizona senator it was the worst of all possible worlds: his efforts to get something done about a pressing national problem was being help up on what he considered to be a niggling detail; his absent leadership was (rightly) being called into question; and although he was no longer the Republican face on the deal--he'd sloughed that thankless duty off on his state-mate John Kyl--he was still being hammered in the conservative media and the polls over the deeply unpopular "amnesty" bill.
Source: The Myth of a Maverick, by Matt Welch, p.109 , Oct 9, 2007

Rated 8% by USBC, indicating an open-border stance.

Biden scores 8% by USBC on immigration issues

OnTheIssues.org interprets the 2005-2006 USBC scores as follows:

About USBC (from their website, www.usbc.org):

U.S. Border Control, founded in 1988, is a non-profit, tax-exempt, citizen`s lobby. USBC is dedicated to ending illegal immigration by securing our nation`s borders and reforming our immigration policies. USBC [works with] Congressmen to stop amnesty; seal our borders against terrorism and illegal immigration; and, preserve our nation`s language, culture and American way of life for future generations.

Our organization accepts no financial support from any branch of government. All our support comes from concerned citizens who appreciate the work we are doing to seal our borders against drugs, disease, illegal migration and terrorism and wish to preserve our nation`s language, culture and heritage for the next generations.

Source: USBC website 06n-USBC on Dec 31, 2006

Other candidates on Immigration: Joe Biden on other issues:
2024 Republican Presidential Candidates:
Ryan Binkley (R-TX)
Gov. Doug Burgum (R-ND)
Gov. Chris Christie (R-NJ)
Gov. Ron DeSantis (R-FL)
Larry Elder (R-CA;withdrew)
Gov. Nikki Haley (R-SC)
Rep. Will Hurd (R-FL;withdrew)
Gov. Asa Hutchinson (R-AR)
Perry Johnson (R-IL)
Mayor Steve Laffey (R-RI)
Former V.P.Mike Pence (R-IN;withdrew)
Vivek Ramaswamy (R-OH)
Sen. Tim Scott (R-SC)
Secy. Corey Stapleton (R-MT)
Mayor Francis Suarez (R-FL;withdrew)
Former Pres.Donald Trump (R-NY)

2024 Democratic and 3rd-party primary candidates:
Pres. Joe Biden (D-DE)
V.P.Kamala Harris (D-CA)
Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. (I-NY)
Chase Oliver (L-GA)
Rep.Dean Phillips (D-MN)
Jill Stein (Green)
Cornel West (Green Party)
Kanye West (Birthday Party)
Marianne Williamson (D-CA)
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